Biedermeier Style: Interior and Furniture
Biedermeier - twisty word, besidesmany unfamiliar. However, this word refers to the concept of just plain and ordinary. The art style Biedermeier - style simple, devoid of pretentiousness and gentility. Very often we organize and legalize his house according to the rules of this particular style. Because Biedermeier - a style of comfort, everyday unassuming and simple earthly pleasures. It is also called petty-bourgeois or philistine. Just do not immediately give a negative assessment of this style. Let's first look at what it represents, what the advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for any home.
History of style
There was a Biedermeier style in the early 19th centuryGermany. And his name shall name Gottlieb Biedermeier (alias German poet Ludwig Eichrodt). One of the characters in his works was ironic provincial schoolteacher, whose distinguished philistine tastes, interests and philistine complete satisfaction with their lives. This style is very quickly established itself in Germany and Austria. And not only at home, but also in art. And here is the paradox: it is in Europe to this style were treated and continue to treat ironically, considering the Biedermeier style of the middle class and people with low aesthetic demands.
The Russian Biedermeier came in the days of Pushkin. Although bourgeois philosophy of this style enough to meet the general mood of the era in Russian Biedermeier style perfectly fit into the interiors of the noble houses, manor houses and even royal villas. Biedermeier replaced pathetic empire and established itself at the expense of domestic comfort, comfort and convenience. Strictly speaking, this style came just as a result of the search of simple truths and values, tranquility and peace. But later he became a good example of how using modest means can solve the problem of the laconic and stylish interior.
A characteristic hallmark and even styleBiedermeier could be called a kind of poetization things of the world, reflecting petty-bourgeois ideology. And at the same time - the simplicity and unpretentiousness. By the way, the literal translation of the word «bieder» - simple-minded, narrow-minded. Historically, the interior in this style is asymmetric and disproportionate. The main motto - the warmth and comfort, the main motif - flowers and stripes.
The main focus is aimed at the creation of stylecozy and relaxed atmosphere at home, where life flows slowly and pleasantly. However, the desire for a quiet and measured life, formed the basis of this style, it is quite understandable. A series of wars and revolutions simply forced people to seek peace in everyday life and in the dispensation.
Biedermeier, primarily residential style(Domestic) interior. That is why it meets the most vital human needs: convenience, practicality, functionality. This style - a vivid example of how there is a unity of spiritual and objective people in the world.
Biedermeier sometimes called simplified Empire style. At the heart of his artistic expression are ancient motifs. But in contrast to the Empire, he abolishes the pathos imperial palace columns and prefers soft and rounded forms. We can say that all of the Biedermeier style of interior selects just what is close in spirit to the middle class and the common man.
The current embodiment of style
The overwhelming majority of apartments in our houses notcharacterized by large areas of space and volume, but the demands of the Biedermeier style meets as well as possible. So now, this style is very popular, but, unfortunately, it is in Europe. We have it still do not accept or understand, disparagingly calling philistine or German style.
However, assume that Biedermeier is notno artistic value is fundamentally wrong. Biedermeier is not only shy and neutrality, it is also the stability (and what's wrong with this feeling?). Biedermeier style is not tasteless philistine, lacking aesthetic component, it creates and contemporary designers and artists. The Biedermeier style are made not only accommodation (apartments and houses), but also hotels, restaurants and cafes. Together with Biedermeier modesty brings the atmosphere comfort and allows you to make any room a "living" and the home.
Biedermeier very democratic - norequirements for the size of rooms, ceiling height and shape of windows and doors. The interior, designed in the Biedermeier style, there is no luxury. They are characterized by accuracy and brevity, intimacy and proportions balance, soft forms and calm tones. Minimum decor, maximum simplicity, space and light - all this creates an atmosphere of psychological comfort and physical well-being.
Typical solutions for the interior from the Biedermeier period are as follows:
- Use warm and bright colors (yellow, pink, blue);
- finish can any color, but always with a monotonous background;
- drawing on the walls - a simple pattern or a thin strip;
- emphasis on furniture and bright (but few) color elements;
- floors often wooden, carpeted self-colored carpets.
Biedermeier style of furniture to be more fullyanswer its purpose. Practicality, functionality and comfort - it is these properties it must have first of all. During the appearance and spread of this style all the pieces of furniture are even and perfect quality carpentry work (which is not true of modern furniture). The beauty of the texture and color of wood furniture makers emphasized clever veneer (in today's performance - veneer).
In the heyday of the era's most popular Biedermeierpieces of furniture were all sorts of chests of drawers, cabinets, desks and sinks are characterized by simple shapes, smooth lines and a lack of decor. It is very common at the time and was multifunctional furniture - sliding tables or desks with hinged tops, desks with drawers, folding chairs. sofa bed (sofa) have become the most popular items of upholstered furniture of the time, and fashionable interior elements - glass windows, which were exhibited curiosities family.
Furniture manufacturers from modern wellIt meets the requirements of the Biedermeier style, as its main motto - practicality. Select any special distinguishing features of such furniture is simply impossible - its a common feature and not just a mixture of styles and simple styling. And dignity bidermeyerovskoy furniture can be called the combination of different styles with aesthetic demands and comfort. In fact, all modern stylized furniture - this is the furniture in the Biedermeier style.
In addition a special decoration and practical furniture,hallmark Biedermeier style are a few decorative elements. Most often it is plain watercolor, statuettes and souvenirs. It is typical for this style, and a large number of pictures hung on the walls and displayed in frames on the chest of drawers and shelves.
Velvet curtains on the windows, a fireplace and a set ofindoor plants also form an integral part of the interior in the style of Biedermeier. By the way, this era of style gave us the fashion of flower boxes (special stand) for houseplants. And, nevertheless, Biedermeier rejects any excesses in interior decorating.
The integrity of style
Interiors Biedermeier style mustimpression of integrity and completeness. Therefore, this style is appropriate to issue the entire apartment or floor of the house (cottage) in its entirety. Rooms must be light and spacious (spacious does not mean large). In some corner, you can draw a round niche with plants. Furniture is desirable to choose a diverse and multi-functional: cabinets, chests of drawers, sliding tables, sofas, dressing table. All this should be evenly spaced throughout the room.
The walls neutral colors, plain or patternedof colors and stripes. The floors are wooden or coated, imitating the color and grain of wood. On the windows - Air curtains and walls - hanging miniatures and photographs. And here before us in all its glory Biedermeier - style German atmosphere.
It is in these rooms lived and worked Beethoven,Goethe, Schumann. So why, until recently, this style was driven? Why it is a symbol of household vulgarity and commercialism? For certain historians, art historians and sociologists know the answers to these questions. But it all comes back "full circle" and Biedermeier once again in favor. For comfort, practicality and stability - the main motto of this artistic style. And it is to this we all aspire!</ P>