Autism in children
Healthy and properly developing kids - itexactly what all parents want absolutely without exception. But, unfortunately, this is not always, and the parents have to state the fact that their baby is not like all the other kids. Often parents simply refuse to accept this fact and fall into terrible despair and depression, blaming only themselves, but often they are absolutely in no way to blame for all the troubles.
This article will be discussed about this problem asAutism in children. If your kid to put such diagnosis, the first thing to do - is to settle down. The presence of autism in a child is not a sign that your pipsqueak worse than others - it's just different. The second thing to parents of children - receive as much data as possible about the disease, because only by knowing the enemy in the face, can be successfully combated.
Nowadays there are so manyall kinds of literature describing the psychological characteristics of children with autism and give recommendations to the parents. However, despite this, parents are faced with a similar problem, are in complete information isolation. Why this happens in spite of the enormous amount of information? Firstly, most of the literature is designed for health workers, as it is written in the language of science, with a variety of specialized terms and concepts. Secondly - the remaining most of the literature is pseudoscientific, not bearing absolutely no useful information, and often harm. After all, if autism in children, treatment should be carried out by experienced professionals, and not their parents for guidance dubious advice from at least doubtful printed sources.
The main allies of parents in the education andthe treatment of such children should be experienced teachers and psychologists with experience in working with this group of children. But, of course, in any case, parents should not attempt to fully pass on to them the responsibility for their children. The extent to which the psychological characteristics of children with autism will allow them to continue to adapt to society, depends on the parents - their love, patience and desire to help your crumbs. After all, no one, even the most high quality and competent expert knows you, even a little of this all, the kid is better than it knows his dad and, of course, my mother - the native people, watching his development and growth from the first the date of its conception.
In Russia, there is a certain classificationdiseases of the so-called Tenth Revision. This classification characterizes children with autism in the following way: a disease is a complete violation of the overall development of a child aged 2 - 5 years, largely affecting the child's psyche. Signs of autism in children are typical and easily recognizable. One of the first and the main sign of a change in the normal child needs to communicate with the people around him - both family members and his peers. To a large extent affected the capacity for social adaptation, there is a certain stereotype of pathological behavior of the child, his thinking and behavior.
Speaking about the violation of communication, doctors do not have tosight impaired speech or hearing. Organs of hearing and speech apparatus such children often works absolutely fine. It would be wrong to talk about autism in hard of hearing child or a child with serious speech disorders in the event that a baby is still lasts to communicate, to compensate for their violations of active gestures, facial expressions and other nonverbal means of communication.
Kids as autistic when you try tocommunication with him anyone would respond, usually in two ways - either ignores all attempts at psychological contact with him, or else actively enough, and sometimes even aggressive, rejects all attempts to communicate with him, carefully avoiding them. What - any contact with such a child is extremely difficult to establish, and even if it fails, this contact will be purely formal and very distorted. Babe with autism is absolutely incomprehensible to human feelings, emotions, motivation actions of others.
Because of this psychological worldviewcharacteristics of children with autism all mental and psychological functions, even those that are potentially kept unchanged, developing a highly significant deviation from the norm. Many people believe that the symptoms of autism in children is required to include dementia. However, it is absolutely wrong point of view - these kids have, as well as healthy children, a completely different level of intellectual development - from a pronounced dementia to display signs of giftedness and extremely high level of development.
Little has been said above that the children,with autism have certain stereotyped behavior. Under this concept, "stereotyped behavior" refers to multiple, cyclical repetition compulsion absolutely dysfunctional and meaningless motion, starting from the lip biting and shaking the wrists, and the last long enough and complex actions, reminiscent by a strange ritual.
Aggression, including those aimed at childto himself - self-injury, various protest reaction from the passive to the distinct, different fears, and other such behavioral abnormalities, of course, often accompany the disease, however, are not his constant companions. Any of the above symptoms, and sometimes all, may simply be omitted.
Also, parents should remember thatthe growth and maturation of the child, almost all signs of autism will evolve, often most dramatically. However, unfortunately, children with autism are never considered completely izlechёnnymi and clinically healthy - signs of autism to a greater or lesser extent, but remain for a lifetime. Adequate treatment and psychological work with your child can reduce their symptoms to a possible minimum, but still not completely get rid of the disease.
Signs of autism in children, even the very first, andcommon, need to know absolutely se parents, without exception. After all, the sooner will be able to identify the disease and start appropriate treatment and psychological adjustment, the less pronounced are manifestations of autism. Sometimes parents are very difficult to objectively assess their crumbs, and therefore immediately detect the problem - any - any deviation in the psychological and mental development of the child, the parents did not immediately succeed, but only when it becomes quite a serious character. And autism symptoms in children in the early stages is very vague.
That is why every parent shouldlisten to what they say about his child extraneous people - relatives, friends, children, doctors and psychologists. Of course, do not self-diagnose and despair only by the fact that the old lady neighbor told you that her grandson at this age already being spoken. But if some people indicate to you on the same problem, even if you think a non-existent and, of course, you should consider and consult with the baby to a child psychologist. Of course, in most cases, the psychologist will calm parents and dispel all their doubts. However, in the case of health and well-being of the child is still better to be safe than time to miss and miss the problem.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact thatSome, especially the initial signs of autism are very, very similar to each other with the symptoms of other diseases and abnormalities. In most cases of autism begin to think of the field as a notice in a child misbehavior: rocking in the arena for a very long time, the lack of communication skills, reluctance to contact even with his mother and others. Of course, the likelihood of such symptoms, or even their combination is not always indicative of the presence of the child of such diseases as autism or any other, but parents still have to turn to a child psychologist or psychiatrist, at least for their own reassurance.
Diagnosis of autism in children
There are a certain number of signs and symptomsbehavioral deviations from the accepted norms that should alert parents and get their attention. As a rule, the most effective diagnosis of autism in children of two years, but often it can be done much earlier. So, what should you look for the parents? Autism in children has the following symptoms:
- The kid is absolutely not able to make, and the moreat least some - a time to keep, direct eye contact "eye to eye". The child may cry, capricious, to break out of hand, or simply look away. Although, of course, it is not necessary to conduct such an experiment, if a child is upset about something, scared, tired, or just naughty - in a state of nervous excitement such a reaction is quite possible and perfectly healthy baby, not having any deviations to the psychological development. Also, do not make any conclusions after one - two attempts. Talking about abuse in psychological development is possible only after a systematic failure in the attempt to establish eye contact with the crumbs.
- The child does not respond to his own name, notresponds to it. What should parents do in the first place? Of course, to see a doctor, and make sure the child's hearing aid is functioning fully, without any - any violations. Do not attempt to independently verify the rumor baby at home, popping in his ear and the other "grandmother's methods." Modern research scientists long ago proved that the human ear is a very complicated structure and the person perceiving some sounds, a certain volume and frequency, absolutely not perceived by others. So it is quite possible that a knock or cotton baby hears, but your voice - no. It is also worth bearing in mind that, if you had not been called crumb none other than "my honey, bunny, mother's joy," etc., is nothing surprising in the fact that the baby does not respond to voё name - he just does not know it .
- At crumbs observed a pronounced shortagejoint attention. Joint attention - it is an attempt of the child one way or another (in words or gestures, and touch) to draw the attention of an adult or peer are interested on its subject or event. Parents should be wary if a walk kid never on what does not react and is not trying to show that - or, it attracted the attention of parents.
- Very often parents are touched, watching their sonor daughter groan, wheeze of the last effort trying to cope with what - or daunting yet for their task, whether it is an attempt to reach the fallen rattles or tying your shoes on the shoe, but the assistance of adults do not apply. Of course, the pursuit of self-reliance should be encouraged by adults, but parents should think. If this always happens and the child never asks for help to the pope or the mother, it can also indicate many disturbances in mental development or problems in the psychological state of the child, including autism.
- As a rule, most children are very open andgood-natured, always ready to share a toy or candy. Of course, all the kids at a certain stage of development, are showing signs of greed and categorically does not want to share anything they owned, but they really loved my mom are willing to give the last. The children with autism will never even try to share what - or with anyone else.
- In addition, many parents have children with autism, note the rather strange their attitude to people - like a totally inanimate objects.
Particularly attentive and, as a rule, experiencedparents with older children are often wary even during infancy crumbs, noting atypical behavior. Children with autism often have very pronounced difficulty in feeding. Such children are often very sluggish suck the breast, often abandoning it, for that matter, and from supplementary feeding and bottle, and sometimes, on the contrary, very greedily suck the milk without feeling the onset of satiety, and again srygivaya In undertaking suck. Later, moving to adult food, baby gets very, very selective, chooses for itself a certain group of products and does not recognize any other food, even if he is very hungry.
The majority of children with autism, withbirth parents report violations in regular full-fledged work of gastro - intestinal tract: very frequent regurgitation, vigorously expressed by intestinal colic symptoms of dysbiosis - constipation, diarrhea, nausea, causeless very common, and even vomiting.
Many kids suffer from a fundamentalsleep disturbances. Some children can sleep 20 - 22 hours a day, while others, on the contrary, sleeping only 3 - 4 hours. Even more often in children with autism, there is a disruption of the so-called biological clock. As a result, the child confuses night and day - sleeping during the day, awake at night.
The temperament of these children are also different, but,As a rule, always from one extreme to another. A baby can be very controversial, to roll up such hysteria parents that they never dreamed of, and the other for hours on end can lie in bed and absolutely anything not react, considering its pen or drawing on the wallpaper. Such peace of mind is often very pleased with the parents, who are proud to tell friends and family about how they have a wonderful and well-balanced kid, does not respond to a cold or the lack of attention for some time, or even more so for such a "trifle" like wet diapers. But in fact, such a thing should make parents seriously suspicious.
Of course, the symptoms of autism in children has muchmore numerous, but the above are the earliest, which is quite able to find their own parents who do not have medical training. Again, I would like to once again draw the attention of parents to the fact that a single manifestation of such symptoms in children is not a reason to panic and does not serve as a signal of the presence of their children any - any deviation in psychological development. Only regularly repeated, they can serve as the first alarm bell, and the reason for seeking medical help.
Diagnosis of autism in children isa very difficult task even for experienced child psychologists, who have repeatedly had to deal with similar cases. Diagnosis of autism in children is physically impossible for one - two visits to a psychiatrist. The doctor requires a number of surveys and long-term monitoring of the baby, a thorough analysis of each individual case of deviation from the normal psychological development and psychological condition of each individual child.
Often parents are too painful tore-appointment at the doctor techniques, conducting various surveys and tests. However, they should remember that only the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help their kids more fully integrate into society and lead a fulfilling life as possible. Remember that it is often accompanied by autism, or he is the companion of so many others, often even more severe mental disorders to be diagnosed in time and are in need of treatment and sufficiently serious adjustment.
For example, very often diagnosed with autismcoupled with a very severe degree of mental retardation and is accompanied by severe speech disorders. Treat as a single disorder, leaving at the same time more neglected, quite simply it makes absolutely no sense. That is why so important a complete diagnosis, in its full extent. Only after the correct setting, the sweeping diagnosis possible appointment of adequate treatment and proper organization of correctional work.
The causes and treatment of autism
If, after a thorough examination, yourthe kid put a disappointing diagnosis of "autism", the first thing that should make parents aware of this incident and reassure. Your child is now a vital need your support and actively participate in his upbringing. And to do that you can only if you maintain self-control, the ability to think clearly and make appropriate decisions. Absolutely understand your frustration and pain, but you have to understand and come to terms with this fact, both inevitably and learn to live with it.
If you are very sick and you realize that you do notIt turns out to cope with despair, if you are experiencing symptoms of depression, do not hesitate to ask for help. It could be your mother, sister or girlfriend. Often it is enough to ease the problem simply say out loud. Unfortunately, often this measure is not enough and it does not bring relief. Sometimes parents just shy of talking about the problem to anyone else.
In this case, it is worth thinking about how toto seek psychological help. It is possible that a few visits to a psychologist will be enough to help you come to terms with what had happened and return to you as you need for you and your little peace of mind.
The first thing you must understand fully and toend, it is the fact that autism - a diagnosis for life. Autism in children treatment is quite varied, but it can only alleviate the disease and to soften the process of social adaptation of the child. However, if you still have the autism in children, treatment, even the best and most progressive, is not able to completely heal a sick child.
Yet parents are in any case should notdespair and a deep longing to look into the future that awaits them and their child. Your longing is in no way able to help your child, but to miss the precious time that can be more successful adjustment of the psychological characteristics of children with autism. As it has been repeatedly stated by you and only you, to a greater extent depends on how successful the treatment will be and correction.
Once parents are fully aware of andwill be the presence of autism in your child, it is necessary to find like-minded people - parents such as "unusual" children. From communicating with SRI, you get a huge number of advantages:
- Most importantly, it will bring you a kind of communication - is the realization that you are not alone in their distress.
- The relative calm and even perhapssome confidence in the future. After all, in front of your eyes is a bright example in the face of other children and their mothers and fathers, confirming that even after raising such a diagnosis life goes on.
- In most cases, parents are sure towill share with you their experiences, give tips on education and of conduct with such crumbs. These tips, of course, will not completely rid you of all the errors and failures, however, will help to fill a much smaller amount of their own cones.
- With people with exactly the same problems as inyou, you'll be able to without - or feel free to share the successes of their baby or his failures, pediatricians discuss your profile or new methods of treatment and correction of this disease.
In some cases, desperate parents takesform of obsession that diagnosed their baby delivered is not correct and they start to go to one specialist after another - first in your city, then in their region, and at times foreign clinics. And over and over again, hearing the confirmation of the diagnosis, refuse to accept it and begin treatment, and are looking for more and more new specialists. Of course, consultation with the two - three experts will not bring nothing but good, but do not make it an end in itself. Indeed, in pursuit of an illusory hope that the diagnosis is wrong, you can permanently lose time, optimally suitable for the adequate treatment and correction. the definition of "- parents pilgrims" Such parents even got in psychology. And they are such behavior is none other than the classic Escape from reality.
There is also the other extreme of conduct: parents categorically unwilling to recognize the existence of a problem as such, strongly denying it, rejecting the proposed treatment by physicians and psychologists and adjustment behavior. No arguments and beliefs can not force parents to recognize the existence of the problem and start treating the child. All behavioral and psychological abnormalities their crumbs they explain only the individual characteristics of the character. However, such a position is fundamentally incorrect and only leads only to exacerbate the problem - something that now seems nice feature of the baby, will eventually become totally inadequate and absurd behavior of the child, causing him to become a permanent object of ridicule by their peers.
And during adolescence for children with autismabsolutely does not give any treatment, as well as the behavior defies correction. Thus, if the parents for some - any reason miss the most optimal for the treatment and correction, they condemn your child to a defective existence.
Very many parents are concerned about the fact thatwill continue with their toddler, after he grows up and becomes an adult. Definitely answer to this question is very difficult - projections can be very different. No self-respecting expert will not make such a far-reaching predictions and to take on this responsibility. If your doctor gives you what - that predictions about the distant future of your crumbs (more than two - three years), it should alert you as calling into question the professionalism and competence of the specialist.
If we consider the fact that the most common diagnosis"Autism" is put kiddies third - fifth year of life, no doctor within the first year of treatment and adjustment will not be able to give an accurate prediction even about the child's ability to learn in a specialized or regular school, not to mention the adult life. For the children with such diagnosis, doctors observed over a sufficiently long period - two - three years. They pay attention to absolutely everything, even the seemingly insignificant little things, the results of the treatment and course of adjustment behavior. It was only after a long time it becomes possible to make any - any forecasts for a period not exceeding three years.
However, parents still continueinterested in what can be expected in the lives of children with autism. On the basis of numerous and long-term observations for such people, there are a variety of the disease:
- In severe cases, the disease is requiredvery long-term treatment, a thorough psychological adjustment. However, the only thing that can be achieved over the years of hard work with the child - is an elementary adaptation at home. You can teach your child basic hygiene skills - wash, brush your teeth, bathe, use the toilet, to dress themselves, in some cases even prepare their own meals. And often it is even harder to do than to prepare another child with autism to school.
- Some children are very quick and easy to learnall the necessary skills and are able to learn not only at specialized schools compensating, but also in ordinary schools. And often these children learn much more successful their healthy peers and receive gold medals, comes to higher education institutions and their graduate with honors. However, you will never see such a child, chat with classmates at recess or playing: at a student party. Children with autism may well effectively be taught, but to communicate - almost never. That is why these children often become objects of ridicule and persecution by their peers.
- However, stories are cases simply stunningsocial adaptation. For example, autism suffers from several eminent people Russia - film actor, politician, doctor and several writers. Of course, for ethical reasons, the names in this material are not mentioned.
- In some forms of autism in a timely mannerbegun treatment and correction of behavior in childhood, growing up, people will not only get the right to drive the car, but even create their own full-fledged and well-off family, and no one does not even know the people around them about the presence of such a disease.
One of the most frequently asked questionsthey hear in their reception of child psychiatrists, after they talk to parents about their child's diagnosis, it is a question "Why?". Autism in children is reason enough not yet been studied. However, when discussing such a complex issue as autism in children, the causes of hereditary nature has always occupied a leading position. Generally, if a child is born in the family, which subsequently diagnosed with autism, one of his ancestors with the probability of 70% suffered from the same disease.
Below is a list - Autism in children causes:
- In addition to the aforementioned hereditary factoroften the cause of autism is becoming any organic damage to the central nervous system of the fetus, which occurs during both fetal development and in the process of giving birth, and even early infancy.
- Also, scientists - researchers tend to believe that the infection and the disease of women with rubella, as well as chicken pox, in many cases, leads to the birth of children with autism.
- Serious trauma woman received her early pregnancy in the first trimester (12 weeks) may also trigger the development of a child's autism.
However, despite the abundance of all kindsassumptions and hypotheses about the nature of the disease the child's autism, doctors still have not come to a consensus. Therefore, it is not necessary to require your doctor to call the exact cause of your child's illness. It is unlikely that a doctor will be able to reliably answer your question. And not because he does not want you to know the truth, but because it is in the world there is no accurate way to determine the cause of autism - it can only be assumed.
But, you see, is not on the assumptionsabsolutely no sense to you or your child. Well, you know, perhaps, in which - the genes of your ancestors took that same fatal mutation, which caused the development of autism in your crumbs. But from this knowledge it becomes easier and the treatment will not be effective. A much better result will bring your desire to help your child to look with confidence to the future, than if you have to dig into the bygone yesterday, to change that - something which is still not in your power.
If the diagnosis of autism in children, treatmentIt is necessary. However, a universal method of autism treatment simply does not exist. Each child needs its own, highly individual approach, the choice of method of treatment and rehabilitative techniques. However, there is one common to all principle, one might even say, a rule that should be carried out strictly.
Most importantly, what should be sent to the mutualthe efforts of doctors and parents - is to establish a good mutual contact and trust relationships, but maintaining an adequate level of criticality. Parents in any case should not appear the slightest doubt as to whether or not competent enough to absolutely all the experts who one way or another interact with their child. And the doctors, in turn, need to see the openness and kindness of parents, their readiness to help. Only in this case may successful collaboration and teamwork. Namely, this method provides the most tangible results in the fight against disease.
However, it does not mean that in the caseIf parents have any - any questions or concerns in this or that method of treatment, they should keep silent about it and do not apply mind that their is something disturbing. On the contrary, all doubts should be resolved as soon as they arise. In the same case, if for some - any reason you are unable to find an understanding with the doctors, it is worth think about changing specialists, as this treatment is not only not bring any improvement, but all can significantly worsen the course of the disease and the condition of the child.
Another important rule isfollowing. Despite the well-known fact that the treatment and correction of behavior in autism should start as early as possible. Despite the fact that up to three years, such a diagnosis is not simply put, in case of any - any warning signs, parents should consult a doctor who can make a decision on preventive treatment and correction of behavior. Parents in any case it is not necessary to abandon the proposed treatment, because even if subsequently diagnosed and confirmed, nothing but good, playing with the baby will not do.
Working with kids who have already been diagnosed, should be systematic and comprehensive - in addition to their psychological and pedagogical work should be also medication.
Parents should not try to interfere in the workspecialists and attempt to make adjustments to the scheduled treatment plan. Of course, you can express their preferences or wishes to physicians and teachers, but still, if you do not have the appropriate education, grant the right to choose the method and plan of treatment for people with the necessary skills, knowledge and experience in this area. And it is not in any way is unacceptable to the parents at its discretion change medication regimen - to change drugs, their dosage and even the reception. This may negatively affect the child's body and cause irreversible changes.
Parents are also very important to consider thispsychological characteristics of children with autism is almost missing the ability to adapt to new circumstances, people and environment. That is why it is not recommended to frequently change specialists and child environment. Houses need to try to create the conditions and way of life, the most similar to the institution in which the corrective exercises are with the child.
The birth of a child with autism, changesway of family life most dramatically: the daily routine, the line of conduct of all family members, constancy and consistency - this is the most essential components of successful treatment and correction. And this way of life of the family will last more than one or two years, and a long - long time.
The duration of correctional work with children,autism, should last for many years of human life. But the most productive and intensive work is in the early stages of the disease, as well as in the period of primary school age. It should also be borne in mind that the majority of correctional work is to lie on the shoulders of parents and other family members, rather than doctors and teachers.
And doctors have there an expression such as"Correctional program of work with children with autism, should continue for at least 25 hours a day." Of course, you should not take this expression literally, but it means that the work must be carried out continuously, consistently and systematically. In other words, the whole family life should be a continuous correctional work with the child.
I would like to draw the attention of parents to thethe fact that to make any - any solutions to the child with autism, it is very, very difficult. Therefore, the whole life of the child should obey you once and for all established rules. Any deviation from these rules is able to permanently clear the kid off track and undo months of your joint ventures with physicians and educators effort. The child must live within a strictly defined mode of the day, to use strictly defined things, play with toys strictly defined. Of course, at first glance, such a parent line of conduct may seem harsh and even brutal in part, but it is the best option for most of the child. After some progress in treatment beyond the limits gradually need to be expanded.
There are some general guidelines to parentsautistic children. Of course, adhere to them or to develop their own line of conduct, it's up to you, but it's worth to get acquainted with them:
- The first thing that you just need to do ismake the child accept the fact that he is also a real full-fledged member of the family. And we should not pay too much attention to it so that the child is noticed huge amount of attention can bring absolutely the opposite effect - the child can not understand what it is called and simply feel uncomfortable and even more closed in itself.
- Despite the fact that such children is extremely simplerequires a specific set schedule, try to create the illusion that the baby himself, his set. Be sure to consult with him, gently failing to ensure that a child alone take the necessary decisions. If you try to forcibly impose their mode of the day, the child can begin to violently protest. However, the observance of the regime must be watched very carefully, avoiding any deviation in one direction for more than half an hour.
- Be sure to praise the child, even for the mostminor successes, but be careful to praise was not too violent and manipulative - children with autism, as well as the healthy kids, very thin feel false. Also I would like to remind parents that the praise should follow immediately behind the act - as a rule, children with autism rarely remember past events and do not understand what true belated praise.
- Do not forget that in misconductChildren very quickly become commonplace, and the children with autism were no exception. That is why the unwanted behavior should be stopped immediately in the strongest terms.
- But the smallest, most insignificant, the desirebaby to any changes, parents should actively support and encourage. After all, if you try to learn something new baby receives from you understanding and support, it can withdraw into themselves and not to repeat such attempts more than ever.
- Suppressing unwanted child behavior, and evenpunishing him, in any case do not let the child to understand that you are unhappy with them. You need to give your child firmly understand that the dissatisfaction is not he called, but only his behavior. The most important thing is to understand and accept the child - this is what the world around him is friendly and courteous, but not opposed to him.
Of course, all the information given in this article,not of a scientific nature and may not be for parents only guide to action - rather, it is simply information for consideration. The birth of a sick child - it is always a heavy event, but you must find the strength to live on. And not just to live, but to live with your treasure - the most full and, of course, happy.</ P>