Anemia in Children
Anemia. This is the word on everyone's lips, however, whether all are very well aware, what is this disease and how many species it is? This blood disorder is very widespread. They are sick adults and adolescents, anemia in infants is also frequent enough phenomenon.
Before we talk about what is anemia,as well as what are the signs of anemia in children, I would like to refresh the available yet from school knowledge of what is blood and what are its functions.
Even little kids know that redliquid that flows from his knees knocked, and there is blood. Blood has a variety of interesting features. For example, blood, thanks to special proteins, has property clot, thereby stopping the bleeding.
Blood is constantly circulates through the arteries, veins andcapillaries, strictly on a particular route. Oxygenated blood rushes to all organs and tissues of the human body, and carbonated and other waste products, the blood comes back through the veins. Interesting fact: The total length of the blood vessels is about 100 000 km.
The liquid component of blood is called plasma. The plasma contains a large number of proteins, fats, hydrocarbons, micro and macro elements, many of which take in the process of hematopoiesis. Also in the plasma are blood cells:
- Erythrocytes. Pink blood cells shaped like plates. The pink color gives them a part of the protein hemoglobin. The main function of hemoglobin - transport: the red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, erythrocytes determined Rh - factor and human blood group.
- White blood cells. The size is the largest blood cells. In the middle of the red blood cell contains a nucleus around which there are small granular inclusions. These blotches are called granulocytes. There is also a cell having a much smaller size, with a round, almost the entire area of the cell, the nucleus - lymphocytes. A cell having a bean-shaped nucleus, called monocytes. All these cells are leukocytes and blood.
The main role of white blood cells - protective. It leukocytes take the first blow in the event of penetration into the human body a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, cancer immunity is also responsible leukocytes. White blood cells, as befits a real "soldiers" are divided into different types of "forces". T - lymphocytes recognize the foreign cells and storing them, B - lymphocytes provide the necessary production of antibodies in this situation, the neutrophils and macrophages and destroy them. Thus not only kills foreign cells, and leukocytes. Incidentally, pus - is not nothing but a cluster of dead white blood cells.
- Platelets - cells responsible for clotting blood and stopping.
Plasma with the contained blood cellsIt called peripheral blood. However, speaking of the circulatory system, not to mention the bone marrow, in which there is a birth and maturation of blood cells. Before shaped blood cells enter the peripheral blood, they go through a difficult stage of maturation. With the birth of absolutely all cells are similar to each other as brothers - twins. Only after division and maturation stage they become erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
Life expectancy is low blood cell counts: Neutrophils live only 10 hours, the platelets - 10 days. A red blood cells can be called a long-lived - their life expectancy is as much as 120 days.
Finally, the last link in the chain of bodiescirculatory system - spleen. The spleen destroys cells grown old, and also responds to the emergence of a modified - for disease cells and also destroys them.
That branch of medicine that deals with the studyand treatment of blood diseases called hematology, and, accordingly, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the blood, is the title of doctor - hematologist. To it must immediately contact the parents who notice signs of anemia in children.
Nearly all blood diseases in children have symptoms in the early stages almost identical:
- The deterioration of the general condition of the body.
- Weakness, fatigue.
- A significant decrease in appetite.
If the parents ignore the first warning "bells", a child can significantly worsen the condition. Many parents are very alarmed by symptoms in their children, such as:
- EXPRESS pale skin, often with a jaundiced hue.
- The appearance of dark circles under the eyes.
- Spontaneous nosebleeds, the emergence of numerous bruises.
- Also, often the child has observed the constant inflammation of the lymph nodes.
If the doctor suspects a hematologist blood disease in children, and symptoms also confirm the existence of a problem, he would appoint a special blood tests, on the basis of which will be diagnosed.
It provided some blood parameters for evaluating the correct operation of the circulatory system.
- Red blood cells and hemoglobin level. The normal performance of 4 million and 120, respectively. The color is determined by the color indicator indicator. Color figure can be normal, low (hypochromic) and high (hyperchromatic). When these indicators are reduced blood, anemia, which may be normochromic, hypochromic or, respectively, hyperchromic. For example, 1 degree anemia in children is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin level of approximately 20 units.
- The next indicator on the assistants,conducting blood research notes this WBC. Percentages of leukocyte cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes, and is called the leukocyte formula.
- Also present in the formula of blood cells that bear the name of basophils and eosinophils. Their level increases if the child suffers from allergies or helminthic invasion.
- platelet count does not change overall human life and normally shall not be less than 200000. If the platelet count drops appear symptoms such as systemic hemorrhage, often nasal, the occurrence of petechiae (called petechiae), bruises. If you notice such symptoms in children, parents should immediately consult a hematologist a doctor, in the absence thereof, to the pediatrician.
In that case, if the child has infectiousor inflammatory diseases, blood immediately increased the level of white blood cells, as well as in the laboratory study of blood can be seen the emergence of single cells in the blood, which is not yet fully matured. These changes are called leukemoid reaction. But if the disease is viral in nature, the level of white blood cells is reduced significantly.
There is a huge amount of blood diseases,but the most common anemia. For example, anemia in infants has long ceased to surprise the doctors. Even more, It is the children of the first two years, the most commonly affected by the disease. However, anemia also come in different types:
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
- Hemolytic anemia in children. Much rarer than iron deficiency anemia in children, treatment is more difficult.
- Hypochromic anemia in children is very common, it is a kind of iron.
- Aplastic anemia in children is a very serious and dangerous disease, a very high percentage of mortality among children with the disorder.
The most common type of anemia - anamely iron. Hypochromic anemia in children also applies to iron. Treated hypochromic anemia in children just as an ordinary iron.
Iron deficiency anemia in children causes symptomspronounced, and attentive parents never miss the pathological changes in the health status of children. The child may experience a change in behavior, a pronounced pallor.
Blood counts are also dramatically changed in the direction ofdecrease of red blood cells - red blood cells and hemoglobin. As mentioned above, hemoglobin contains iron, necessary for the normal supply of oxygen to the body. That is why this type of anemia, and got its name.
Also iron is essential not only forbuilding a hemoglobin protein, but also included in the composition of cell respiration enzymes. Thus, when a shortage of iron, there is a failure in many metabolic processes of the body.
Iron deficiency anemia in infants occurs most often. Causes of anemia in children are quite diverse. In some cases, anemia arises from - the peculiarities of fetal development, and in other anemia develops from - the impact on the child's body unfavorable factors from outside.
It is often observed anemia of prematuritychildren. This feature is explained by the fact that the underlying stock iron child receives it in the last three months of fetal development. So, how much is expressed anemia in premature infants, it depends on what stage of pregnancy the baby is born. The lower the gestational age, the smaller iron crumb time to get away from the mother.
However, it may be not only anemia in pretermchildren. The parents of the kids who were born just in time, as you can not lose vigilance. Pay particular attention should monitor the health of your baby those mothers who during pregnancy had severe toxicosis, especially the second half of pregnancy, and chronic diseases. Very often, an iron deficiency anemia in infants is caused by the occurrence of an abnormal pregnancy.
Another important reason for the emergenceiron deficiency anemia in young children, is an intensive growth of the baby in the first two years of life. Weight baby for a year increases in three, and even more time. Accordingly, the volume of blood increases by about three times. Iron requirement also increases the crumbs is at least three times. That is why the possible emergence of anemia in infants.
Contrary to the mistaken belief nutrition in anemiainfants do not have on the course of the disease is absolutely no influence. Because iron is contained mainly in the food, which the children of the first year of life can not be used. But in the milk, unfortunately, the iron content is very low.
Treatment of anemia in children under one year, as a rule, it provides medical way. In our time, there are wonderful drugsiron, which raise the level within days. However, remember that the treatment of anemia in children under one year should only be done by prescription and under the strict supervision of your doctor.
If anemia in children under one year treatment extremelynecessary. If the parents ignore the disease, hoping that it will pass by itself, may develop severe complications. Anemia in children under one year of which treatment is not carried out, resulting in extensive oxygen starvation of the whole organism, inhibition of the normal operation of the central nervous system, lag in physical, yet in the mental development of the child. And to avoid this is very simple, there is absolutely no difficulty in the treatment of anemia in children under one year. To do this, parents simply with the appearance of the relevant, above, symptoms, see a doctor, who, after will be installed anemia in children under one year, prescribe a treatment that will suit for your baby.
But food for anemia in children older than oneIt has already played an important role. Child diet significantly expanded and can correct it in such a way that the body received more iron. The highest content of iron in food products such as:
- Buckwheat grain.
- Apples and apple juice. Preferably, use green apples varieties.
- Red beetroot.
- Meat low-fat varieties.
- Pomegranate juice. However, remember that the second year of life, children pomegranate juice should be diluted with water at a ratio of 1 to 1, in order to avoid problems with the gastro - intestinal tract.
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children, usually not always effective and time consuming.
You also need to tell you about another groupchildren who are at high risk. That girls at puberty. In this period of development of the organism occurs much its restructuring and, as a consequence, the level of demand for iron increases significantly. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children in this group, unfortunately, usually starts with a big delay. This is due to the fact that the disease takes a long time generally asymptomatic.
Anemia manifests itself when developinga condition called chronic medical sideropenia. In other words, chronic iron deficiency. Signs of such anemia in children in children include:
- Very fatigue.
- The emergence of disgust at the sight and smell of meat and fish.
- Perversion of appetite - the desire to eat chalk, sand and other non-edible things.
- Sear previously normal skin type.
- Increased brittle hair and nails.
If a child like iron deficiency anemia in children, treatment should be started immediately, and much more intense than in normal, non-complicated form of the disease.
This form of iron deficiency anemia in childrendangerous. Treatment often includes transfusion or its components. Therefore, it is important to try not to launch development of the disease even in the absence of complaints periodic blood tests. For treatment of uncomplicated forms of iron deficiency anemia in children does not cause any difficulties.
Hemolytic anemia in children
Hemolytic anemia in children - the second frequencydisease related to anemia group. This anemia occurs because the red blood cells are produced in normal amounts, too fast break. Their life expectancy is only a few weeks.
The causes of anemia in children usuallyhereditary. There are two types of this kind of anemia, depending on how the inheritance of the disease occurred. As everyone will remember from school biology course in general, for all the signs in the body meet two types of genes - dominant or paramount, and the recessive or secondary.
If the patient is a dominant gene and recessive - a healthy, disease is dominant. But if the disease is caused by a combination of two recessive genes of patients, the disease is considered recessive.
Recessive type of hemolytic anemia in childrenIt is much greater than the dominant. However, fortunately, including hemolytic anemia is most common dominant type of disease, called anemia, Chauffard Minkowski. When the disease this type of anemia, red blood cell destruction occurs in the spleen, where, in fact, should occur. But when nesferotsitarnyh hemolytic anemia, which are inherited in a recessive type, red blood cells are destroyed everywhere - in the liver, bone marrow, spleen.
This anemia in children has the following symptoms:
- Permanent pale skin at the beginning of the disease.
- In the course of the disease all the more pronounced yellowness of the skin.
- Periodic fever up to 30 degrees.
Based on laboratory research datablood and health, doctors choose the tactics of how to treat anemia in children. Most often, to facilitate the state child performed a blood transfusion. After stabilization, doctors often recommend surgical treatment of hemolytic anemia - splenectomy. Splenectomy - the removal of the spleen, which is responsible for the destruction of red blood cells. Following the operation, there is a complete clinical cure a sick child with any degree of severity of the dominant hemolytic anemia. However, a genetic defect in humans still remains, and in the future is very likely to pass the disease is inherited.
But the situation in case of illnessnesferotsitarnymi forms of hemolytic anemia is much more difficult. Due to the fact that red blood cells are destroyed in many organs, not only in the spleen, removing it allows only a small effect, if not frankly useless.
Aplastic anemia in children
A less common type of anemia often - ithypoplastic anemia. Causes of anemia in children lies in the fact that for some - any reason there is bone marrow, resulting in the disruption of the normal process of hematopoiesis. In a laboratory study of the blood of children with similar types marked anemia and reduced levels of leukocytes, and platelets and erythrocytes. When the bone marrow puncture in it found excessive amounts of fatty tissue, hematopoietic replacement. Such disorders of the bone marrow work in rare cases may be inherited, but often they are acquired is. As a rule, to establish the cause of defeat is virtually impossible - it can be immune, and toxic, infectious and even exposure on the bone marrow.
Of the group of aplastic anemia more oftenaplastic anemia occurs in children. The disease is always sudden, but the rapid start. Aplastic anemia symptoms in children are quite specific and easily recognizable:
- Very pronounced pallor.
- Systematic appearance of various bleeding, usually nasal.
- For the occurrence of extensive subcutaneous hematoma (bruise). Simply touch the skin of the child.
- Sometimes, a slight increase in body temperature.
In that case, if the parents noticed at leastSome of the above symptoms, they should immediately seek medical attention. The occurrence of aplastic anemia in children is very heavy, the disease tends to progress rapidly. In addition, unfortunately, for the disease at the slightest procrastination prognosis is very unfavorable.
Doctors siih until now can not come to an unequivocalAccording to how to treat anemia in children. Those treatments that give a good positive effect in one case, the other children did not help at all. However, still most often to treat aplastic anemia systematic practice of blood transfusion of packed red blood cells and chemical therapy aimed at restoring normal function of bone marrow.
Unfortunately, this therapy does not alwaysIt gives the desired result. In this case, doctors have to resort to a bone marrow transplant. In our time, this procedure is used quite widely, but an indication for it is not the presence of the relevant disease and the lack of effect of conservative treatment methods.
In order to transplant the bone marrow to the child,where it - you need to take. That's it for this and needs a donor. However, a donor can not be any expressed desire people. The donor must be compatible with the child in many ways. Unfortunately, parents are often not suitable for the role of donors. In some cases, consistent with the child are his brothers or sisters. Otherwise, search for a donor is carried out through a special database and often takes a very long time and, unfortunately, often happens, that kids just do not wait for it.
such a procedure is not dangerous for the donor: Bone marrow sampling is carried out by a puncture in the iliac bone, under general anesthesia. Thereafter bone marrow flows through a special filter system, after which the child is introduced to the patient intravenously. However, not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance. Before bone marrow transplant needed careful preparation strongest pharmacological agents. Otherwise, the probability of rejection.
Preventing anemia in children
Of course, it is much wiser to avoidoccurrence of disease than to treat it. However, the prevention of anemia in children is justified only in respect of iron deficiency anemia. As understood from the above written, or other types of anemia are inherited, or the reasons for their occurrence is difficult to determine.
Prevention of anemia in children should begin moreduring pregnancy. It is during fetal development baby receives vital supply of vitamins and trace elements. These same concerns and iron. That is why the diet of pregnant women should be rich in foods containing iron. During the last months of pregnancy it is advised to take prenatal vitamins containing iron.
After childbirth a woman should makeevery effort possible to breastfeed longer. Since breast milk the baby gets so it needs iron. In that case, if for some breastfeeding - any reason is impossible, it is necessary to give preference vitaminized mixtures with a high content of iron.
It is very important to pay attention to the rightfood child of any age. Properly balanced diet will help your child avoid anemia. If the child already has health problems associated with iron deficiency anemia, it is necessary to completely eliminate from his diet products such as black tea, soft drinks, boiled eggs and cow's milk, as they significantly reduce the body's ability to absorb iron. But ascorbic acid, as well as all organic acid significantly improves the absorption of iron. In addition to her ability to possess such an animal protein found in meat, and fructose.
In no case should not be allowed contact childrenwith vapors of toxic substances - paints, household chemicals, fuels -. lubricants, etc. These pairs have a very negative impact on the child's body can cause severe poisoning. And, moreover, they can cause premature decay of erythrocytes and even disrupt normal bone marrow.
Care should be taken that the child spentin the open air for quite a long time, as well as getting needed for his age exercise. Although a direct connection between the walks and the development of anemia, doctors do not see, they recognize that children are leading the right, healthy way of life, much less likely to develop anemia.
There is a certain "risk group". It includes those children who were born to women:
- suffering from iron deficiency anemia.
- undergoing late toxicosis of pregnancy.
Also in the risk group children bornpreterm or with low body weight, twins, babies as well as those who have seen a sharp jump in growth. The parents of these kids need to closely monitor the health of your crumbs. If you have symptoms, parents should consult a doctor immediately, because anemia is 1 degree in children treated much easier than running a severe form.
The information given in this article, in general, withto familiarize parents with the most common blood disorders in children. The aim of the article is to help parents to miss the symptoms of the disease manifestations. This information is by no means unacceptable to use for self-diagnosis and initial treatment. Remember that self-medication may result in serious complications.</ P>