Symptoms of osteoarthritis
Our spine resembles a pearl necklace -vertebrae, like pearls, are connected to each other by rigid ligament. Between the vertebrae are intervertebral cartilaginous discs that do not allow contact vertebrae and act as shock absorbers between them. The spine usually consists of 32-34 vertebrae, which perform a variety of tasks and relate to different spine. Total spine distinguish five departments:
- cervical spine, which consists of seven vertebrae;
- thorax, which is comprised of twelve vertebrae;
- lumbar region, which consists of five vertebrae;
- sacral segment, which consists of five vertebrae;
- coccygeal department, which consists of three to five vertebrae.
Inside the spinal column is the spinal canal - a cavity, which is formed by the arcs of the vertebrae. After the spinal canal are the nerve roots, blood vessels and spinal cord.
Human Spine adapted toupright posture, but it is walking upright is the factor that detrimental effect on our spine. The intervertebral cartilage daily experience tremendous strain on human movements and vibrations occurring during the motion. Over time, the cartilage is deformed and cease to perform its functions in full. The man begins to feel the strain and back pain - typical symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Diseases of the spine
Back pain is experiencing a tremendous amountpeople, and, regardless of age. More than 80% of people at least once in his life faced with the problem of back pain. Already in the 40-45-year old age disease of the spine become one of the most common causes of disability. The cause of various diseases of the spine becomes a violation of the anatomical shape and a functional condition of the spinal column. And due to such violations of a way of life of modern man. Using the achievements of civilization, humanity leads a sedentary lifestyle. Most people do not need to exert muscular force, the power of many largely unbalanced, almost everyone is exposed to bad habits. All this leads to degenerative and dystrophic changes in the vertebrae and intervertebral discs. Depending on what kind of changes, there is a particular disease. Basically all spinal diseases have similar symptoms - pain and muscle tension, varies only localized pain. But that osteochondrosis is the most common disease - in 90% of cases it becomes a cause of back pain.
The clinical picture of osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis - a disease caused bychanges in the intervertebral cartilage (chondron - meaning cartilage) with concomitant reaction of the vertebral body (osteon - bone). Deforming, the intervertebral disc is compressed and becomes thinner. This results in compression of the bone structure of the vertebral bodies, the vertebrae start to experience congestion. Pinned intervertebral discs deform even more, in some places they begin to bulge out of the boundaries of the spine. Sooner or later the disc pinched nerve roots, causing their inflammation. So there is pain.
Depending on which of the unitsthe spine is damaged, there are several different types of degenerative disc disease. There are osteochondrosis of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, common (when the lesion covers all parts of the spine). The most common are the lumbar (more than 50% of diseases) and neck (25%), osteochondrosis. Often there are cases in which affected several parts of the spine - cervical-thoracic osteochondrosis, lumbosacral.
Initial signs of osteochondrosisappear appearance of dull pain and ache in the lower back (with lumbar osteochondrosis), uncomfortable tension in your neck, crunch in the cervical spine (neck with osteochondrosis). Often arise in the thoracic osteochondrosis pain perceived by patients as pain in the heart.
In the future, the pain often begin to give infeet or hands; limbs numb and become cold. Often there is pain, even in the fingers or toes. Backache increases with sudden movements or vibration (for example, during a trip in transport). It becomes impossible to perform any operation with an inclination of the body forward - with bent back pain increases sharply, but go to an upright position the patient can not always.
The more developed low back pain, the morelimited mobility and flexibility of the spine. Istonchёnnye intervertebral discs reduce the distance between the vertebrae, and the latter remains less room to move. In addition, the muscles around the affected area of the spine are constantly in a state of tense - the body is trying to block the damaged vertebrae to prevent further deformation. "Caught muscles" deliver additional discomfort and pain, and promote even greater limitation of mobility.
All of these symptoms can occur at rest and during movement or physical effort (there is additional pressure on the nerve roots).
Diagnosis of osteochondrosis
How low back pain is identified, if the symptoms at an early stage can be mistaken for symptoms of other diseases?
Of course, the doctor will be interested in history. After listening to the patient and conducting examination, the doctor will send it for further examination. There are several different methods of examination for the diagnosis of degenerative disc disease.
spine X-ray Screening(Spondylography) allows you to objectively assess his condition. Radiographic signs of osteoarthritis are identified at the early stages of the disease. Spondylography gives an idea of the state of the vertebrae and indirectly - on the state of the bone canal and intervertebral discs. Pictures are taken in frontal and lateral projections. If the doctor deems it necessary, the functional images are assigned in different positions - in the position of the side slopes, in the position of flexion and extension.
If necessary, the patient make the tomogram- Layer x-ray examination. In addition to conventional X-ray examination, on special indications contrast X-ray examination of the spine is used. These surveys include:
- Airmyelography - using as contrast from 20 to 40 milliliters of air. Air is injected into the spinal canal after the lumbar puncture;
- Angiography - when the vertebral or carotid artery is injected 10-15 ml of contrast, and then in two projections is a series of images;
- Myelography - colorant used,introduced into the spine to release the ridge structure. With myelography can determine the strength of the intervertebral disc pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure lasts within half an hour, make it under local anesthesia. First cut away painkiller lower back. Then, using a fine needle into the liquid filling the space near the spinal cord, opaque coloring substance is introduced. After injection of contrast x-ray table is tilted slowly, and the substance is moved along the spine of the lower portion of the upper. After the procedure the patient must spend several hours lying down.
- Discography - is similar to myelography, with the difference that the coloring agent is injected into the painful disc to determine whether it is the cause of osteoarthritis.
Other methods of examination of the spine
X-ray does not give a complete picture for the doctorestablishing an accurate diagnosis. With it, you can be fairly judged mainly on the degree of deterioration of the vertebrae and their displacement. Unlike X-rays, CT scan gives a clear picture on which you can judge the presence and location of intervertebral hernia location. This survey method allows you to get a clear and detailed image of the spinal column and displays all changes in it from different positions and angles. This CT scan - a gentle method that is easily tolerated by patients.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - thismethod provides the most accurate on the date of the spine image. This is possible thanks to the fact that the survey is carried out not by X-rays, and with the help of a strong magnetic field. MRI is the preferred method of examination, because it allows you to assess the condition of the spinal canal, nerves, bones, muscles, ligaments; it can be used to see any changes that occur in osteochondrosis.
Symptoms of osteoarthritis
The location and nature of the pain whenosteochondrosis depends on whether the spine is exposed to the disease. Of course, signs of cervical degenerative disc disease differ in many ways from hitting features, such as the lumbar spine. Yet, there are common symptoms of degenerative disc disease, which will prompt that you are ill:
- making a sudden movement, turning his head tofailure, making the torso twisting, combined with a slope or tilt after straightening up quickly - you suddenly feel an acute and severe pain in the back, which is similar to an electric shock;
- after the "shock" you for a while as if paralyzed and freezes, unable to move;
- the muscles at the point where the pain originated, painfully tense;
- if you press your fingers in the place of the spine, where you feel the pain, the feeling of sharp pain again;
- spinal mobility becomes significantly limited. You find it hard to find a position at which the pain could subside;
- if the pose adopted by you fails, the pain increases sharply.
There are some symptoms that are characteristic of a certain type of degenerative disc disease.
The symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the cervical easily confused with symptoms of other diseases. When struck in the spine cervical spine, the pain is passed into the hands, back of the head; there are strong headaches, turning into a migraine.
You may experience severe, piercing pain in the neck or back of the head, which is enhanced by turning the head, coughing, sneezing. The pain of the neck may be given in the shoulder and side of the chest.
In some cases, the patient experiences not onlyheadache, and dizziness, tinnitus, visual disturbances. In the event of progression of the disease is possible persistent violation of the brain or spinal cord blood flow.
If the compression (squeezing) of the nerve roots in thethe lower segments of the cervical spine, symptoms similar to the symptoms of angina - chest pain, neck and shoulder blades. Pain increases with movement and is not stopped heart medications.
The reasons are due to degenerative disc disease of the cervicalanatomical features of the spinal segment. Cervical vertebrae are experiencing a constant load, hold and often turning his head, while the size of the cervical vertebrae is substantially less remaining vertebrae of the spine. We should not forget about the narrowness of the internal vertebral canal.
In the neck area are a huge numbernerves and blood vessels, including those taking place within the spinal canal a large vertebral artery that feeds the brain. All this fits tightly together in a confined space of the cervical vertebrae. When osteochondrosis of the cervical vertebrae offset occurs pinching a nerve root, its swelling and inflammation rapidly.
Osteochondrosis of the thoracic and lumbar
The spine in the thoracic region, coupled with the ribsIt provides a framework that protects the vital organs. Thoracic vertebrae have such a structure through which remain inactive, so they are rarely subjected to degradation and deformation. As a consequence - a pain in the thoracic spine also occur infrequently. The symptoms of degenerative disc disease of the thoracic often mistaken for symptoms of other diseases - it is confused with angina and even mistaken for myocardial infarction.
In the thoracic spine pain of defeatIt is surrounding the character, and the patient may seem like it is coming from the lungs, heart or stomach. It is because of the fact that symptoms of thoracic osteochondrosis "masked" by other diseases of great importance in the diagnosis of a differential diagnosis.
Lumbar osteochondrosis same is none other than thechanges in the intervertebral disc, are respectively in the lumbar region, which consists of five major vertebrae. Lumbar connects the sacrum and the thoracic spine. Osteochondrosis of the lumbar occurs much more frequently than other types of degenerative disc disease.
the fact is explained by the fact that it is athuman lumbar spine bears all the load of the body weight, as well as of cargo that modern man has to endure on a daily basis - briefcases, shopping bags and so on. That's why the doctor as often, patients go to the doctor, not only to themselves osteochondrosis, but also with those complications that it entails, in particular, with a herniated disc. Intervertebral hernia - not such a harmless phenomenon, even paralysis of the limbs is possible in severe cases.
Symptoms of lumbar degenerative disc disease
People who have a doctor to diagnose the presence of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar, note the following signs and symptoms:
- Pain in the lumbar region, andsometimes the pain is shooting character and gives to the buttocks and legs. Pain when bending or squatting sick person worse at times. The same thing happens with prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position, or sneezing, coughing or physical exertion.
- Numbness of feet, especially the fingers.
- Violation of the full functioning of the genitals, often in women there is a slight incontinence.
The causes of lumbar degenerative disc disease
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar reason hasquite specific. Doctors call bipedalism cause human disease. But, of course, if it was the main and the sole cause of the disease, it would hurt all people without exception. Actually, the disease only develops when certain triggering factors. Doctors call the following factors:
- Violation of normal metabolism.
- The presence of human inactivity.
- Excessive weight of the sick person's body.
- Systematic excessive exercise, especially those associated with heavy lifting.
The reason for the intense pain whenosteochondrosis becomes pinched nerve roots. This occurs due to jamming because the bulging intervertebral disk, but the gaps between the vertebrae, in contrast, is significantly narrowed.
The core of the disc gradually shrink and warp, respectively, significantly worsens the ability to amortization.
Treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine asand any other of his disease, needs long-term and intensive complex treatment. Particularly difficult to treat complex and advanced forms of the disease, burdened by the presence of numerous hernias.
Treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease shouldappointed only by a qualified technician. The doctor, after a preliminary examination on the basis of the data obtained and the individual characteristics of each patient, prescribe the most appropriate treatment for him. Modern methods of treatment of osteochondrosis allow us to find an individual approach to each person.
As a rule, the treatment of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar is as follows:
- acupuncture procedure.
- A comprehensive massage, including a point.
- Different types of heating - salt, UHF and electrophoresis.
- Pharmacological preparations aimed at restoring cartilage.
The main objective of these procedures isfull restoration of the blood circulation and the elimination of the lumbar spine stagnation and inflammatory processes. It is also very important to remove the swelling of blood vessels to restore the normal process of metabolism in the intervertebral discs, thereby stimulating the launch of the process of natural regeneration of cartilage tissue. It is also very important to remove the accompanying osteochondrosis of the lumbar muscle spasms.
Measures and means of prevention of osteochondrosis
It is also very important to know how towarn of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar. Prevention of the disease will help to avoid a lot of unpleasant moments associated with the presence of the disease, its diagnosis and subsequent treatment. And, of course, we must not forget. That prevention is much cheaper than treating the disease has already developed.
The correct diet
Nutrition is very important for normalfunctioning of all systems of the human body. I was no exception and lumbar osteochondrosis. A special diet is not only an excellent preventive tool, but also helps alleviate the condition existing in a human disease, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the treatment.
The main condition of correctness of the dietfood for a person suffering from any disease of the spine, including degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine, it is salt-free diet. The sick person menu should include foods such as vegetables, fruits, lean meats. It is important to completely eliminate from your diet all fatty, spicy and fried foods, spices, salt and sugar. From drinks should give preference to tea, broth hips and cranberries. Completely eliminate the use of coffee, carbonated and alcoholic beverages.
The correct position and the choice of lying bed
For the prevention of disease andsuccessful treatment is very important to know in what way the right to lie and, most importantly, on what. The best choice will be a smooth and moderately hard bed. Do not fall into fanaticism and try to sleep on the boards. It is much wiser to cover the bed with a thin shield, made of wooden planks, over which it is necessary to lay a thin mattress. In the event that a suitable mattress is not at hand, you can use them instead of a few thin blankets.
This measure is necessary in order to spinrestored its physiological form, and occurring vertebral subluxations straightened. However, be prepared for the fact that the first time you will experience quite intense pain that will last as long as the vertebrae do not take the normal position. To facilitate this state the first time it is possible to enclose a painful joint roll of cotton wool. Thus, you remove the muscle tension and loosen slightly painful.
Many people suffering from degenerative disc diseasethe lumbar, make the same mistake - go to sleep on his back. However, in this case, it makes more sense to go to sleep on his stomach, pulling at his chest bent at the knee leg. Under the stomach can put a flat, thin pillow. And only after lying in this position at least half an hour, you can very carefully to turn back, to have his hands behind his head, fully extend your legs and spread them socks in different directions. In that case, if the pain is too strong, and do all of the above actions can not follow them just as much as you are able. Each time, you will have obtained better and better.
In the morning, after you wake up, get out of bedperson suffering from degenerative disc disease is extremely difficult and often painful. In order to facilitate this process, doctors recommend the following. Once you wake up, turn on the back, and stretch his arms and legs several times. Then start very gently move the legs feet clockwise. Then carefully turn on your stomach, stretch again and very gently lower the legs to the floor one by one. After that carry the weight on his feet, leaning on hands. Arise is also very carefully, without making any sudden movements.
It is equally important to sit
After all, if a person sitswrong, gravity is unevenly distributed, and has a very negative effect on the spine. To prevent this from happening, the human body should not be based on the lower back or tailbone, and the ischial tuberosity, which, in fact, for this purpose, and intended. However, this is possible only in one case - if a person is sitting on a hard surface. It is also important to choose the correct height of the chair - it should reflect actual shin. Improper seat is also part of the main causes of exacerbation of degenerative disc disease.
In the event that you are forced to workspend sitting for a long period of time, every half hour work out the body turns in both directions. Also be sure to work out five circular rotations as the neck and shoulders. Make sure that the shoulders were maximized, and try to keep your head straight as possible.
No less worthy of attentionsitting behind the wheel. The back should have full support. Buy a special roller, which must constantly be laid between the seat back and the loin. While driving, keep your back straight and your head. Do not spend behind the wheel of more than 3 hours. Be sure to make regular stops. Get out of the car and work out simple physical exercises, such as lifting and lowering arms, squats, bends and slopes. In the end, even a simple walk around the machine is able to have a positive impact on the spine and musculoskeletal system. The same goes for watching TV or reading. The most important rule - do not stay too long in one and the same static posture - this is an extremely negative impact on the state of the spine.
Many people try to use traditional methodstreatment of degenerative disc disease. However, to do this is still not worth it, because the spine - are too serious and complex phenomenon. And in any case it is not necessary to experiment, wondering whether he will or that recipe of traditional medicine. After all, in case of failure, the cost of failure is too high. The best improvement is simply not come. In the worst case - a man can pay for the possibility of error to go.
In the event that you or your family noticethe presence of some - any problems on the part of the spine, you need as quickly as possible to ask for help to doctors and not to self-medicate. The possibilities of modern medicine are wide enough, and amenable to cure almost any disease. Most importantly, time of his diagnosis and begin treatment. That is why in any case can not delay the visit to the doctor.
Osteochondrosis, as well as any other disease,most successfully treated exactly in the beginning of the disease until it has not joined other complications that are typical for this disease. In this case, the treatment of degenerative disc disease is much more complicated and takes much longer.</ P>