Broad-spectrum antibiotics - isconcept so firmly in the everyday life of modern humanity, that each of us can not imagine my life without them. However, despite this, in a society there is a lot of variety of points of view on the issue of antibiotics: how and when to apply, how they affect the human body and if he hurt?
Answers to these questions usually boil down totwo diametrically opposed. According to the same group of opponents - antibiotics is none other than the extremely dangerous, chemically synthesized substance, which is extremely negative impact on the human body, causing damage to his immune system, the intestinal microflora and digestive organs. According to them, with absolutely any pathogens of various diseases of the human body has to cope on their own, without outside interference, and the use of antibiotics.
The second group of opponents is confident thatantibiotics - it is almost a panacea, be sure to have at home "arsenal" at least several varieties of antibiotics and begin to use them at the first sign of the slightest ailments. And if such people at the slightest increase in temperature, the doctor did not prescribe antibiotics, in their eyes, he just loses all the professionalism and trust.
Of course, absolutely true in any caseis neither one nor the other point of view. Absolutely true is the fact that, for example, antibiotics for colds will bring nothing but harm. But here, for example, pneumonia (pneumonia), cure is very difficult without antibiotics. Earlier when people were not known antibiotics, many diseases are now cured in a few days, then in most cases resulted in death.
Additionally, when selecting or rejection of antibioticsit should be remembered that, to date, there are a new generation of antibiotics that bring a minimum of harm to the human body. In addition, it is necessary to consider such a thing as the body's sensitivity to antibiotics and other factors. Of course, people who have no medical training, self-pick up an antibiotic is almost impossible, so these drugs should be prescribed only by the doctor. But still everyone should know the principle of action of antibiotics, the rules of treatment and recovery. This is what will be discussed in this material.
However, in order to fully understand a manthe mechanism of action of antibiotics on the body of a sick person, you must clearly understand how it arises and develops or other infectious or inflammatory disease. As everyone knows, all infectious diseases in humans evolve after introduction into the body of various pathogens. All these organisms are extremely varied, but all are distinguished into three main groups:
- Bacteria. They are due to the fact that they have their own cellular structure - DNA, cell wall, etc. -.. Can exist independently.
- Simple. They possess the same ability as the bacteria of independent existence. A little bit different by construction of the cell structure.
- And the third group - viruses. Viruses radically different bacteria and protozoa that they do not have their own cellular structure, and are only a molecule of DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein capsule. Of course, the virus is nothing less than a complete parasites, absolutely incapable of existence is someone else's body. Viruses manifest themselves begin only after its introduction in the cells of a living organism.
So, how to deal with all the above-describedpathogens? If they are to be destroyed with any - any surface or even the skin, there is a fairly wide range of different products for disinfecting. For example, the same alcohol or hydrogen peroxide. But they are not suitable for use inside the body, as it has on him is strong enough and detrimental toxic effect.
Exactly for such cases, when the bodyyou must get rid of the effects of pathogens, antibiotics and are intended. Very often people confuse the two concepts - antibiotics and "antibiotics". Antibiotics - a matter exclusively of natural origin, but antibiotics - it is chemically synthesized substances, according to the principle of action is absolutely similar to antibiotics - a naturally occurring substance. But do not delve much into the subject of their origin and receipt, as they have on the body the same effect - both positive and negative.
The principle effect of antibiotics on the human body
Most importantly, it enables physicians to successuse of antibiotics for the treatment of man - is the fact that all the vital processes in human cells, are fundamentally different from similar processes of vital activity of any of the bacterial cell. If ethyl alcohol or hydrogen peroxide when subjected to both kinds of cells - both human and bacterial, - it has the same toxic effect on both groups of cells that are highly selective antibiotics. Antibiotics affect only the processes that occur in the cell is a pathogenic microorganism, but never affecting human cells.
All antibiotics have very strictclassification depending on how is the impact on the life. That's it on the basis of the chemical structure and type of exposure is carried out classification of antibiotics - some groups are designed to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial cell outer membrane, which in the human body is simply absent. This group of drugs are widespread antibiotics, penicillins, cephalosporins, and a number of other drugs.
The other group of antibiotics acts absolutelyin another way - they're just almost completely suppress the high-grade protein synthesis in bacteria. Among such drugs include tetracycline antibiotics, for example, doxycyline, macrolide - erythromycin and aminoglycosides - streptomycin.
In addition, a list of antibiotics not only divisibleeffects on the principle pathogens, but also on such factor as antibacterial activity. Probably, every person who at least once in their lives faced with the need to use antibiotics, drew attention to the annotation to the drug, which necessarily always specified spectrum of activity of the antibiotic.
Some are broad-spectrum antibioticsactions that are very active against many bacteria, while others, on the contrary, are narrowly focused, on what - or a certain group of bacteria. Some microorganisms - such as a virus, an antibiotic, unfortunately, may not have at least some - or effect. It is often possible to hear the question of why this is happening. The answer is very simple - bacteria and viruses have a fundamentally different not only the structure but also the functioning, so that causes the death of the bacteria does not affect the virus. And despite the high level of development of modern medicine has not yet created any sufficiently effective antiviral drug, and all well-known group of antibiotics to fight off viruses are not able to.
However, doctors are often faced with thea situation where the previously successful acting antibiotics do not bring a sick person absolutely no relief. Why is this happening? All living organisms, and bacteria in the same number, have a remarkable ability to adapt to new environmental conditions, including the most its adverse factors. A striking example of this adaptation - is the development of resistant bacteria resistant to certain types of antibiotics. Scientifically it is proven by the fact that absolutely any kind of bacteria eventually acquire resistance to any, even the most powerful antibiotics.
Moreover, more than dosage administered willdrug, and the more - the more resistance will develop into this. And pharmacology simply faced with the need to create all new antibiotics. Currently, among the doctors - there is an hypothesis pharmacists that if in our time still pediatricians as polls, as now, will prescribe antibiotics for bronchitis or antibiotics for sore throat, even without trying to do without their use, the 20 years from now mankind is simply nothing to treat serious diseases. But often antibiotics for children with serious diseases are a real salvation.
It is important to assign the use ofantibiotics. Of course, if the sick person is in the hospital treatment of conditions with a sufficiently serious disease, such as pneumonia or meningitis - an inflammatory disease that affects the brain membrane - the use of an antibiotic is simply not necessary and should not be subject to any doubts and discussions. However, it should be appreciated that in the hospital a lot more opportunities for continuous monitoring of the condition of the sick person - from specific laboratory tests, finishing elementary clock medical supervision.
But if the situation is opposite - malaiseslightly, and the treatment takes place in the home, responsibility almost entirely lie on the shoulders of the patient or his parents, if we are talking about a child. Very often it happens that parents are asked doctor to prescribe antibiotics to the child with the flu or a cold. Of course, competent doctor would never do it, but, unfortunately, more and more often there are cases when the doctor, knowing about the inadmissibility of such treatment, prescribes antibiotics crumbs. It is easier to agree with the parents than for a long time to explain to them why it should not do.
However, if the doctor does not prescribe antibiotics to the child,who really need it, simple bronchitis may result in serious bilateral pneumonia, cystitis and easy - a serious inflammation of the bladder. That is why parents should have at least a general idea of the cases in which the use of antibiotics is necessary, and what is undesirable.
Various respiratory tract infection. In this disease, antibiotics are often, but it always justified? As the average statistical data, the average child of preschool age transfers - 6 - 7 respiratory infections per year. If every disease treatment will be carried out with the help of antibiotics, load on the body of the child would be prohibitively large and very negative impact on his health.
Currently, there are no reliablethe method of diagnosis of what is the nature of the origin of respiratory tract infections - viral or bacterial yet. However, doctors know for certain that acute bronchitis (inflammation affecting the bronchial mucosa) as well as acute rhinitis (runny nose), in 90% of cases are caused precisely by viruses of different origins, the inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis), mucous membranes of the mouth (stomatitis) , otitis media, most often caused by pathogenic bacteria.
That is why the first thing you look at the doctorsprescribing - is the fact type of infection. For example, when viral bronchitis antibiotics prescribed by the doctor is not in a hurry, but if the child has sore throats, and treatment involves antibiotics fail. But, unfortunately, very often in life one can observe the following situation: a baby has a fever, a cough. The first few days, the parents try to cope without antibiotics. However, most parents are afraid that will result in serious bronchitis pneumonia.
As a rule, under the yoke of their own fears andadvice of relatives and friends begin to parents in a few days to give antibiotics. Just how justified such a measure? The widespread misconception is that if the temperature is kept for 3 days in the fourth antibiotics should be prescribed. In fact, this is not the case. When any viral infection temperature is about 5 days, and in some cases small and the temperature can be maintained for a longer time. In any case, give your child antibiotics as an antipyretic, and just like that, "just in case". Antibiotics are absolutely not designed to calm the nerves of parents - for this there is valerian.
In the same case, if the parents notice the childsigns of deterioration, such as a significant increase in body temperature (up to 39 - 40 degrees), the appearance of shortness of breath, pronounced weakness, they should be alerted. But even in this case it is not necessary to go to the pharmacy for antibiotics, and you should immediately call a doctor who will be able to objectively assess the child's well-being and to develop further tactics of treatment.
In addition, parents should remember thatAntibiotics are not antitussives, but only reduces inflammation, destroying pathogens. Sam cough is a protective response of the body. And, as a rule, cough disappears last. To eliminate the need for special cough cold preparations, which must also assign it a doctor, based on the individual characteristics of the organism and the disease the child. However, if after two - three weeks after the cough, the child does not pass, parents must get worried and consult a doctor, who can help find the cause of this.
The second most frequent casethe use of antibiotics in children - is acute otitis media. As a rule, otitis almost always doctors prescribe antibiotics. This happens because, in about 80% of all cases of otitis culprit of the disease is a bacterial infection it is. Of course, having such data, it makes more sense to start antibiotic therapy immediately and not wait for the deterioration of the child patient.
If the patient has sinusitis, antibiotic therapyalso quickly it leads to a significant improvement. However, there is one but - antibiotics for sinusitis is advisable to apply only in the acute stage of the disease. Beyond the acute stage sinusitis treated by other methods.
Next in frequency disease duringwhich are assigned for the treatment of antibiotics - a cystitis. As it is known to suffer from cystitis more often by women. And very often it happens, when at the first symptoms of cystitis the woman begins to take the first comer antibiotic through one - two days cystitis symptoms disappear. The woman immediately cease use of antibiotics, but at the slightest supercooling symptoms appear again and again. However, antibiotics for cystitis should be selected strictly individually in each case.
Such self antibiotics may make somea lot of trouble, so at the first sign of cystitis should consult a doctor who will prescribe a specific survey in order to identify the sensitivity of the urine microflora to antibiotics. It was only after the doctor will study the results of urine, he will be able to select the most optimal treatment regimen, which is not just relieve the symptoms and kill pathogens, and that was the cause of the disease.
Antibiotics and other factors
Antibiotics during pregnancy cause verya lot of questions and disputes. It is widely believed that antibiotics leads to the development of fetal malformations and birth of sick children. And whether antibiotics are harmful during pregnancy, really?
However, antibiotics exist todaythe latest generation, which do not cause developmental defects, and other complications of a normal pregnancy. In addition, considerable importance is and gestational age at which women are being treated with antibacterial drugs.
Most adverse effects of antibioticsthe fetus - it is in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, even if the woman was forced to undergo a course of antibiotic treatment, when properly selected drugs the risk of complications is almost minimal. That is why it is important to promptly seek medical care and do not get involved in self-administration of antibiotics during pregnancy.
Some physicians do absolutely do not acceptantibiotic therapy during pregnancy, prefer to do their own. However, it is also not the most correct position, as long inflammatory process in the body of a pregnant woman, and only, especially fever could have a detrimental effect not less than the most powerful antibiotics.
When selecting the type of antibiotic, doctors take into account thefact that any antibiotic quite often operates selectively - that is, a certain group of antibiotics affect specific groups of pathogens, except for broad-spectrum antibiotics. Also, as mentioned above, all antibiotics are divided into three subgroups by nature of origin:
- Antibiotics are of natural origin, such as penicillin.
- Semi-synthetic drugs such as amaksitsilin or cefazolin.
- Antibiotics, chemically synthesized - nitrofurans and the like.
That is why, in order to assignthe patient is the best antibiotic, you must first identify with certainty the type of causative agent and its sensitivity to the antibiotic intended. Only in case this is not possible, possible to use broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Many pregnant women who appointedantibiotic treatment, make the same mistake - independently reduce the dosage of the drug, believing that by doing so they reduce the negative impact on the future of the child, which, in their opinion, has an antibiotic. However, to do so in any case it is impossible, because the dose of the antibiotic your doctor is always calculated very precisely. And by reducing the dosage of an antibiotic the bacteria have been destroyed, and the damage to the body can be strong enough.
Another issue that causes no less turbulentdiscussion is the use of alcohol during treatment with antibiotics. There are two completely opposite points of view on this problem. Supporters of one of them claimed that the combination of alcohol and antibiotics do not have absolutely nothing wrong, but their opponents say that such a combination can lead to very serious consequences for the organism.
Modern medicine is almost always sharedthe second point of view. Doctors highly recommend not to combine alcohol and antibiotics, in order to avoid serious complications. His arguments doctors confirm the specific facts. For example, it is known that the combination of alcohol with such antibiotics, such as tetracycline or metronidazole, may cause serious damage to the liver cells.
In addition, significantly affect alcoholthe metabolism and activity of almost all antibiotics. Also, alcohol interferes with the normal activity of liver enzymes, which are responsible for the breakdown of antibiotics is. All this gives rise to a number of rather serious side effects, such as:
- The emergence of severe nausea, vomiting until exhausting.
- Severe headaches that result from serious disorders of the cardio - vascular system.
- Also, often there is a strong increase in blood pressure.
- Weakness and shortness of breath.
But all the same terrible complication,caused by co-administration of alcohol and antibiotics - a toxic liver damage. Alcohol itself is a heavy load even for a healthy body, not to mention a weakened disease.
Restoring the body after administration of the antibiotic
Recovery of antibiotics - also veryan important aspect, which in any case can not be ignored. Despite all the benefits that brings antibiotic treatment, side effects also can not be ignored. Listed below are the main ones:
- Antibiotics often contribute to the development of lesions of the skin and the mucous membranes of the fungus.
- Antibiotics destroy much vitamin K and vitamin C.
- In addition, antibiotics often cause the body's tendency to allergic reactions.
- Very often while taking antibiotics occurs destruction of the natural intestinal flora, resulting in possible development of dysbiosis with all his attendant symptoms.
As already mentioned, during treatmentantibiotics should start drinking drugs that restore the body's normal microflora. However, you can use and no less effective folk remedies that will help to quickly restore normal intestinal microflora and the condition of the body in general.
If a sick person suffering from flatulence, it quickly and effectively help drunk at night means to prepare that you will need:
- 0, 5 liters of yogurt or sour.
- Half of onions.
- 2 cloves of garlic.
- 1 gram of dried dill.
- 1 gram of dry parsley.
- 1 teaspoon dried chamomile inflorescences.
- 1 teaspoon of St. John's wort.
All ingredients are carefully prechop, add the yogurt. Then pour half a liter of boiling water and stir. Wrap the container with a towel and allow to stand for two hours. After this time, the resulting solution strain through a cheesecloth. Assuming it requires two times a day on an empty stomach, at half the cup, for at least 7 days.
It is also very effective in helping to restore the intestinal microflora of the following broth. To make it, you will need:
- 1 teaspoon of dried St. John's wort.
- Half a teaspoon of baskets tansy.
- Salvia Dried - half a teaspoon.
All herbs are placed in an enamel bowl andPour one liter of boiling water, bring to a boil. Then turn off the broth, let stand for an hour and filter through a gauze cloth. Take this decoction is necessary one tablespoon before each meal, for at least 10 days.
Also do not forget that almost allFermented foods are extremely beneficial effect on the state of the digestive tract, especially in the normalization of intestinal microflora. But do not buy the full-fat dairy products. Also, doctors do not recommend to get involved in all sorts of drinking yoghurts - benefits they bring no absolutely no.
And most importantly - for any signs of diseasesSeek proper medical care. Often a sick person seeks medical help only after the deterioration of the condition and doctors are forced to resort to the use of antibiotics, whereas if a person asked early in the disease, their use could be avoided.</ P>