First aid for frostbite
Unfortunately, technological progress bringsman not only exist in our time the benefits of civilization, but also an increased risk of various injuries. That is why every modern woman should know how to provide first aid in an emergency. Quite often a person's life depends precisely on correctly provided the first pre-medical care. This article describes the algorithm of first aid at the most common accidents. First aid for domestic injuries in many cases, save lives.
However, before we talk about this, I would like togive general advice regarding all accidents without exception, whether it is first aid for frostbite or first aid for bleeding:
- The most important thing that you need to do - iscalm down. Panic - the worst your assistant. Also, be sure your fear will be transferred to the affected person, which without this very painful and frightening.
- Try to stop as quickly as possiblethe impact of damaging factors on the body of the affected person. However, remember about your own safety - for example, when exposed to carbon monoxide person must be brought into the fresh air as quickly as possible, but at the same time do not forget to use the means at hand, such as a wet towel, for their own protection. If it turns out first aid for electrical injuries, you need to follow some simple rules, which will be discussed below.
- Immediately necessary to cause a brigade of "firsthelp. " When you call, try to patiently and as detailed as possible to answer all the questions the dispatcher. Believe me, the manager is interested in age of the patient and the circumstances of the incident are not out of idle curiosity. From this information, it depends on what team doctors need to have a more qualified assistance as possible.
- Clearly explain to the dispatcher for directions to a placeaccident, if necessary, if the address is hard to find, try to get out and meet the machine "Ambulance". This can save valuable time.
- Do not hesitate to seek the help of othersyou people - sometimes it is extremely necessary. If you are outdoors, certainly the people themselves will offer their assistance. If the accident occurred in the premises, the neighbors too will not give you help, even the most basic, such as to meet the ambulance.
- If the injured person is conscious, be sure to try as much as possible to reassure him and to inspire confidence in a favorable outcome.
- If the person is unconscious, necessarilycheck for his pulse and respiration. With the lack of it immediately begin resuscitation - CPR and chest compressions. Do not stop until their arrival the brigade "first aid", no matter how much time has passed.
Equipment of artificial respiration and heart massage
This cardiac arrest is one of thethe most frequent causes of death in people with such accidents like drowning, poisoning, severe injury or electric shock. And in time conducted by cardiac massage is able to save the man's life. However, it is important to carry out chest compressions for it to take effect. Also be aware that cardiac massage is always done in conjunction with artificial respiration. Resuscitation should be started with the appearance of the victim of human signs of clinical death.
The onset of clinical death can be on the following grounds:
- The absence of pulse in large veins, especially in the carotid artery, which is located on the neck.
- The absence of breathing.
- The absence of pupil reaction to light, their expansion. However, at this point people who have no medical training, it is not necessary to navigate.
Keep in mind that carrying out of intensive careevents only advisable in the first 4, a maximum of 5 minutes after the onset of clinical death. In addition, the later will be launched artificial ventilation of the lungs and heart massage, the more will suffer from hypoxia internal organs, especially the brain.
However, it would not be sad, there are casesresuscitation when no sense: for example, in the event that more than 10 minutes after cardiac arrest. In this case, the person would not be able to resurrect even a miracle, and not that resuscitation. The exceptions are those cases in which cardiac arrest stemmed from a long and severe hypothermia. In this case, the critical time increased to 30 minutes.
Also, do not do artificial respiration andchest compressions, "just in case" - in the event that the injured person is unconscious, but breathing function and cardiac activity is not depressed.
The very same technique of resuscitationevents is as follows. In case of clinical death of the affected person must be put back on a firm surface, under the shoulders of the person you need to enclose something - for example, coiled roll clothes. This is necessary in order to prevent sticking of the human language of the victim's throat, which is an obstacle for artificial respiration.
Those who will carry out resuscitationevent, you must sit to the left of the affected person, put your hands on the heart, crossed one on one and start rhythmically press on his chest with one-touch speed of one second. Sense cardiac massage is pressed against the heart between the spine and compressed chest, resulting in a blood is squeezed out of the heart cavities, so that circulation is maintained artificially.
Because of chest compressions in the bodythe person affected is fully restored blood flow in the most important vital organs, like the heart and brain. However, as is well known, circulation is necessary first to supply oxygen to the body. And in the absence of breathing oxygen in the blood to take nowhere. That's what you need along with cardiac massage CPR. Inhalation of air in the lungs comes oxygen supply to the body and reduces the risk of brain cell death.
Before carrying out artificialbreathing, nose and mouth need to pre-clean the victim of foreign objects, silt, sand, vomit or blood. After that, you must firmly hold the affected person to the nose and breathe air into his mouth. After two to unclench your nose, after which there will be a passive exhalation. You can also do artificial respiration, holding his mouth and inhaling air through the nose.
Just how effective ongoing resuscitation, can be judged by the following criteria. Artificial respiration may be considered effective in the event that:
- The victim appeared isolated human respiratory movements. However, in this period, to terminate resuscitation even impossible.
- Full restoration of an independent respiratory function. Only after that mechanical ventilation can be stopped.
A chest compressions is considered successful if cardiac activity is fully restored. To judge whether this has happened, it is possible by the following features:
- Discoloration of the skin.
- The disappearance of a bluish tint visible mucous membranes and nail plates.
First aid for injuries
First aid for injuries oftenIt allows you to save not only the health but also human life. That is why it is so important to be able to properly and timely first aid for injuries of any origin. Of course, there are some common methods of care. However, it is important to remember that the first aid for head injury is significantly different from the first aid in case of spine injury.
One of the most common injuries arehead - brain injuries, such as concussions and fractures vault or base of the skull. Often a concussion people are longitudinally lightly, and very vain - this is a very serious brain damage. There is often closed craniocerebral trauma of the head as a result of the fall or the impact with a blunt object. Often, concussions are accompanied by brain injuries. That is why if a person has head injury, first aid should be provided irrespective of the victim's state of health.
Suspect the presence of the victim of human brain concussion can be the following symptoms:
- Loss of consciousness, even short-term.
- Nausea or vomiting, both single and multiple.
- The injured person may complain of dizziness and tinnitus.
- Can visualize a pronounced pallor.
- Often the affected person notes increased drowsiness.
- In more severe cases, it can be short-term amnesia - memory loss.
If a person has a head injury first medicalassistance should be provided immediately. In that case, if the person is unconscious, before the arrival of medical necessarily turn the person on his side, so that, in case of vomiting, avoid getting vomit in the airways and asphyxia. However, if the victim has suspected spinal injury, in no case do not try to turn it on its side before the arrival of the brigade "first aid" - simply turn to the side of his head. After the victim was given first aid at a trauma of the head, it is necessary to deliver to a medical facility for a full examination and treatment.
The first medical aid for injuries should be providedstrictly depending on what kind of trauma the victim. For example, during car accidents most frequently occur chest injuries, first aid in this case is as follows.
One of the most dangerous chest injuriesare breast stab wounds. When puncture wounds can observe symptoms such as pain in the chest, extremely difficult breathing, the appearance of blood from the wound air bubbles. When the affected person breath whistling sound is heard, resulting from the fact that air is drawn into the wound.
In that case, if you are faced with suchview injury is first necessary to close the wound. This is necessary to ensure that the affected people could breathe. To do this, cover the wound with plaster by placing it on a dense material that will not pass air. In the same case at hand did not have anything suitable, even just hold a hand wound. Then immediately call the brigade "first aid".
But even if a person has a light injurychest, first aid still needs to be provided immediately. Next in frequency trauma - fractures of the ribs, which can be as simple or complex. In simple fractures of the affected area quickly becomes swollen, causing severe pain that is magnified in the commission of the respiratory movements. The only thing that you can do on your own, it is to fix the hand of man the victim, from which a broken rib.
In some cases, there are more complexRib fractures, which result in some damage to internal organs. As a result, internal bleeding may occur. Man thus feels very thirsty, difficulty breathing, blood may go out of his mouth. Your actions should be the following: try to give the patient the most comfortable position, and secure the arm. However, this can be done only in case, if you are exactly sure that the spine does not hurt humans.
First aid for spinal injury shouldrendered with extreme caution, since the movement of the injured person before the arrival of the brigade "first aid" could lead to even greater damage to the spine. To suspect this type of injury can be the case if a person has symptoms such as:
- Acute pain in the neck or back.
- Traumatic brain injury, accompanied by a long-term loss of consciousness.
- Noticeable unnatural position of the neck or spinal column.
- limb numbness, inability to move them.
The very first thing you must do isimmediately call the brigade "first aid". Before the arrival of doctors to fix the injured person's head stationary. You can use any means available - constricted towels or clothing. In that case, if a person is showing signs of clinical death, you should immediately begin resuscitation, but it should be careful not to change the position of the human body.
First aid for abdominal injury also depends on what kind of trauma in the affected person. abdominal trauma are of two types:
- Closed abdominal trauma. As a rule, most often closed injury occurs as a result of falling on his stomach or hit it. Very often the result of such exposure to traumatic rupture peritoneal vessels occurs and as a result, internal bleeding develops. Most often affects the liver, kidneys and spleen.
Signs of such injuries are sudden abdominal pain, severe involuntary muscle tension abdominals, paleness and loss of consciousness.
In severe cases, may developtraumatic shock. It is necessary to help the victim to take the most comfortable position for him and immediately call "ambulance." In no event it is impossible to physicians soon drink the victim or give any - any painkillers. If possible, it is advisable to apply a cold compress to the abdomen.
- Open abdominal trauma referred choppedpenetrating wounds, entailing damage to the abdominal organs. In severe cases, possible loss of internal organs. Most often fall bowel loops, with the result that the affected person is growing rapidly traumatic shock.
Unfortunately, very often with a similar woundpeople close to the affected person without medical education are lost and begin to panic. Under no circumstances should one try by yourself attempt to straighten precipitated internal organs - they must be covered with clean material and does not touch before the arrival of "first aid".
First aid for poisoning
First aid in case of poisoning,It proved to be correct, and to minimize the negative impact of toxins on the body, and sometimes even save a person. However, providing first aid in case of poisoning, it is necessary to know exactly what causes human poisoning.
Most often the first aid forfood poisoning. After all, this type of poisoning is a leader. The most common cause of such poisoning becomes contaminated with bacteria products: botulism, E. coli, staphylococcus or salmonella. The symptoms of this poisoning include:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain of varying intensity in both the stomach and intestinal region.
First aid for poisoning food verysimple - the need to ensure a human patient bed rest for a day to limit food intake, but see to it that the sick person drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.
However, in some cases, first aid for poisoning food should be provided to health care professionals:
- If the poisoned child under 5 years of age or older person.
- If the sick person's body temperature more than 39 degrees.
- If vomiting is a continuous, exhausting character.
- If poisoning symptoms appeared after the use of mushrooms.
One of the most dangerous - mushroom poisoningfirst aid can often save lives. If the poisoning is caused by mushrooms, immediately call an ambulance. Prior to arrival Doctors try to induce vomiting in a person poisoned. To do this, give him to drink about a liter of water with divorced her in potassium permanganate. Per liter of water is enough two or three crystals - solution should have a pale - pink color. Remains of mushroom necessarily pass the medical.
First aid for poisoning pillsIt is about the same scheme. However, you need to identify with certainty what kind and how many pills have been taken poisoned man. The most difficult to do so if the victim - a young child. Providing first aid in case of poisoning pills to children, it must be remembered that in children under one year can not cause vomiting artificially, as this can lead to cardiac arrest! The packaging of the drug is required to send the brigade "first aid".
First aid for poisoning by drugs should be provided immediately. Drug poisoning develops very, very quickly - within 30 minutes. The victim having symptoms such as:
- Cyanotic hue of the skin.
- The hands and feet due to spasm of blood vessels grow cold.
- The patient falls into a pathological drowsiness.
If first aid for narcotic poisoningwill not be provided in a timely manner, in a human patient very quickly come convulsions, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and cardiac arrest. That is why first aid in case of poisoning drug, it is desirable to provide as soon as possible.
However, unfortunately, in the home isit is practically impossible to do so you need to immediately call "ambulance." Before the arrival of the ambulance only thing you can do is to try to cause vomiting, make ice to the head and legs, on the contrary, put in hot water. In no case do not let the man sleep.
First aid for alcohol poisoningIt is essential in cases when poisoned alcohol is in coma, and does not respond to attempts to wake him. If a person has alcohol poisoning, first aid will be as follows:
- Allow the victim to inhale ammonia. Continue to give to smell ammonia, as long as he does not come to life.
- Then call in poisoned vomiting, giving him a drink of water beforehand. However, you can induce vomiting only if the person is not "falls" asleep.
- On the head apply a cold compress.
We also need emergency first aid for acute poisoning by chemicals. First aid for poisoning with ammonia is necessary in the event that the victim:
- Acute sore throat, dry and scratchy.
- Possible swelling of the larynx and lungs.
- In that case an ammonia solution was concentrated inside there is a strong mucosal damage and necrosis of the stomach and esophagus.
The first medical aid in case of poisoning aimed atthe elimination of the toxic effects of ammonia on the organism. The affected areas of the skin and mucous membranes should be thoroughly rinsed with running water, drink the victim warm milk with soda and immediately call "ambulance." In that case, if the poisoning by chlorine, first aid will be the following:
- When chlorine gets on your skin or mucous membranes, rinse immediately with plenty of water.
- If the chlorine got into the body through the lungs, it is necessary to immediately stop its effects on human, remove victim to fresh air immediately and call "ambulance."
First aid for poisoning and mercuryIt consists only in causing vomiting person. After that, you must immediately call "ambulance." Before doctors soon give a person activated carbon at the rate of one tablet per 5 kg body weight.
First aid for poisoning by hydrogen sulfideis to ensure that the injured person to the flow of oxygen. In severe cases of poisoning possible onset of clinical death. In this case, you should immediately begin resuscitation.
First aid for poisoning smoke depends onof the condition of the injured person. If a person has carbon monoxide poisoning, first aid will be to maintain normal respiratory function and circulation. Remember that such poisoning also causes vomiting, so be sure to check whether the airway of the victim vomit. Before the arrival of "first aid" constantly monitor the person's breathing. At the first sign of cardiac activity and respiration immediately proceed to the intensive care unit.
First aid for poisoning paint is conducted in the same manner as any first aid for poisoning with pesticides:
- If the person breathed vapors of paint, you must bring it to the fresh air.
- If the paint got into the body through the esophagus, it is necessary to induce vomiting, then immediately call "ambulance."
First aid for frostbite of extremities
Frostbite - quite often encounteredphenomenon. As a result of exposure to low temperatures, the skin is a violation of circulation, and in more severe cases, thrombosis with subsequent necrosis of the tissue.
First aid for frostbite should beprovided at the first symptoms, but, unfortunately, often do not manage to do it. This is explained by the fact that people with frostbite almost never experience pain.
Most often it needed first aid for frostbite of extremities, as they often suffer. First aid for frostbite of hands isthat the injured person is necessary to get into a warm room. In no case can not begin to rub his hands with snow, or more than - or directly in the cold, as this may cause damage to the skin and subsequent inflammation.
In the room you need to immerse your hands in coldwater, gradually increasing its temperature. This is necessary to ensure that the circulation in the vessels gradually restored. After sensitivity is restored, you can grind the hands of alcohol-containing liquids. However, carrying out first aid at the frostbite, in any case, do not use pure alcohol, as this can cause a chemical burn. First Aid is in the same way, but you can add mustard powder in a foot bath with frostbitten feet.
Often in winter freezes in humans noses. First aid for frostbite nose is the same scheme that and in all other cases of frostbite, but instead of alcohol need to use any fat cream.
Once again I would like to remind the simple rule - inIf you or your loved ones are faced with a situation that threatens the life or health, the most important thing is not to lose peace of mind and self-control. And sincerely hope that you never have to put into practice the information.</ P>