How useful breastfeeding
Sure, baby, especially in the firstmonths, perfect food - mother's milk. It not only contains all the necessary nutrients, enzymes, hormones, protective factors, but also easily digested, absorbed by the body baby. Therefore, it is important both to maintain breastfeeding longer.
The composition of breast milk
In mother's milk a unique chemical composition, which has a kinship with the cell composition and tissue of the child.
The composition of breast milk changes during the lactationseveral times, synchronously with the way the baby improved digestive organs. In the first 2-3 days after birth produces colostrum - a thick yellowish liquid. It is very rich in protein and minerals, fats and carbohydrates is there a little bit. Composition colostric protein is very similar to that of the baby's blood serum proteins, and therefore it is particularly easily absorbed and assimilated the best. Even a small amount of colostrum, which sucks the baby in the early days, it provides everything you need, and sets a screen diathesis.
After the third day of lactation produced "transition milk": the protein in it is smaller and the proportion of fat and carbohydrates increases. Much now and in the subsequent dependent on the quality of maternal nutrition.
The proteins of human milk - digestibleWhey protein called albumin and globulins. Coarse protein, casein, appears only 4-5 days, and it will be much less whey - in the proportion of 20:80. Curdled proteins in the stomach of the child as a fluffy bunch with a large surface area, easily accessible action of the digestive juices.
Fats breast milk digested by 90-95%. This is a very fine emulsion, consisting of tiny fat globules. Special fissionable their enzyme lipase - is also a component of mother's milk. The high concentration of fat-soluble vitamins A and E, essential for normal growth and development of the child's body. The fat content varies throughout the day, increasing in the afternoon. The first portion of milk contain less fat, and the latter (so-called "back milk") - more, which also corresponds to the needs of the baby.
Carbohydrates of human milk - basically milk sugar lactose. In lactose bifidogenic properties - it stimulates the growth of the baby in the gut of useful microflora (bifidobacteria).
Most of the lactose is broken down in the smallthe intestines, but a small amount enters the large intestine, where under the influence of bifidobacteria is converted to lactic acid. This, in turn, inhibits pathogenic bacteria and protects the body.
The content of mineral substances in breast milkoptimal for growth and development of the child. Calcium and phosphorus are in a digestible form and the ideal ratio (2: 1). Rickets such children are not afraid. All minerals absorbed from breast milk is ideal.
Protective factors (special immunologicallyactive substances and cell components) - is also a unique feature of human milk. It has substance lysozyme destroys harmful germs in the mouth and in the intestines of the baby. In addition, human milk lysozyme up to 100 times more active than bovine lysozyme.
Vitamins in human milk completely satisfy the requirements of the child's body. And their composition is largely dependent on the fact that on the table in the mother. Be aware of this!
And one more irreplaceable artificial mixturesthe quality of breast milk - the content of the whole complex of hormones that regulate growth and development of the child. There is evidence that breastfed babies start walking by an average of 12.5 months (artificial - 14.7), and the beginning of the speech, "falls" at the age of respectively 13.3 and 15.2 months.
More stable psyche, good contact,kindness, tender affection for loved ones - these are the qualities people breastfed. After the baby eat milk decant to prevent and handle cracks 2% tannic ointment, 2-5% solution of silver nitrate, 3% solution of methylene blue, 2% formalin alcohol, vitamin A. If the inflammation has begun, nipples smeared sintomitsinovoy emulsion, which rapidly withdraw its manifestations, kalanchoe juice, plantain salve Shostakovskiy, 0.2% solution furatsilina. Good effect gives local ultraviolet irradiation.
It is also necessary to observe certain rules: once a day to wash the breast with warm water and soap, in decanting milk to prepare the same way and to the child's feeding, - wash your hands thoroughly. Between feedings should wear a bra, and change it at least 1 time per day. Especially careful you have to be if there were cracked nipples.
Inflammation of the breast as a result of fallingmicrobes in it. If his treatment is necessary to avoid stagnation of milk in the gland. And so, in spite of the pain, the baby continue to feed and milk decanted after feeding. Only in severe disease, especially if the milk gets pus, breast-feeding is stopped. Its highly podbintovyvayut impose hot compress (simple, with an alcohol, balm Shostakovskiy). The recommended physiotherapy. In extreme cases, prescribe oral antibiotics and surgical treatment,
How to avoid unnecessary trouble?
Every nursing mother there are times when it seems: the child does not have enough milk. Typically, this is a temporary phenomenon, then lactation is restored.
First of all take care of the correct modeand a balanced diet. You must have enough stationery foods: milk, dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, and vegetables, fruits and berries. Milk production will increase, if for 10-15 minutes before feeding a child drinking a glass of tea with milk, yogurt, juice or broth hips.
You can resort to special means,stimulating milk flow. Specific effect is the use of nicotinic acid (vitamin PP). The drug is taken by 40-50 mg 2-3 times a day for 10-15 minutes before feeding the baby. Two weeks is usually sufficient - lactation is being established. Good 10-15 days drink Vitamin E - 10-15 mg two times a day.
Sometimes milk becomes smaller due to the fact thatnipples Mom appeared painful cracks. In this case, start to feed the baby first of healthy breast, a "patient" give when he was a little sated and will not suck greedily. Try several times during feeding to change the baby's position - this will reduce the stress at the most painful part of the nipple.
After graduating feed your baby, leave it on the nipplea few drops of milk and let them dry. Generally, when the nipple cracks as long as possible should be no closed clothing (even at night). Sometimes it is permissible to lubricate the crack lanolin (other creams, ointments, oils are usually ineffective).
Increase the amount of milk will help to drink from carrots, dandelion, oregano, lettuce seeds, fennel, caraway, anise, fennel. To prepare them is simple.
- Carrot juice. Drink 0.5 cups two or three times a day. To make it tastier, add 1 tablespoon of milk, cream or any other juice.
- carrot juice and milk. 2-3 tablespoons of grated on a fine grater carrots pour 1 cup of milk or cream. Strain. Drink 1 cup two to three times a day.
- The juice from the leaves of the dandelion. Thoroughly rinse with fresh young dandelion leaves, soak for about two hours in cold water and mince. Squeeze the juice through cheesecloth, add salt to taste and let stand for 30-40 minutes. Drink half a cup 1-2 times a day in small sips. You can add the dandelion juice sugar, honey, syrup, lemon juice.
- Drink of lettuce seeds. Grind 20 g of seeds in a porcelain mortar, pour a glass of boiling water and put infuse for 3 hours. Strain. Drink 0.5 cups 2-3 times a day.
- Caraway drink. Cumin seeds (15 g), pour 1 liter of hot water, add the sliced lemon (or g of citric acid), 100 g of sugar and cook over very low heat for 7-10 minutes. Cool, strain and take 0.5 cups 2-3 times a day.
- Cream with cumin. 2 cups cream and 2 tablespoons cumin seeds, place in a ceramic dish (fireproof pot), close the lid and put it on for 30-40 minutes in the oven to languish on low heat. Refrigerate and drink 0.5 cups twice a day.
- The infusion of fennel seeds. 2 teaspoons of seeds pour a glass of boiling water, let it brew for an hour, strain. Drink infusion of cold 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.
- Drink of anise, fennel and oregano. Pounded in a mortar, seeds of anise and fennel mix with oregano (just take 10 g) and the Gulf of boiled water, leave to infuse for 2 hours, then strain. Drink 0.5 cups twice a day.
If the milk has decreased due to the fact that had worried, nervous system calm decoction or infusion of valerian, motherwort.
When it is necessary to increase the amount of milk afterpremature births, successfully used in recent drug Reglan. It promotes the production of the hormone prolactin, which stimulates the secretion of breast milk. If all of you have read above do not help, for 10-15 days after the birth the doctor may prescribe Reglan. His take 1 tablet 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals for a week. If necessary, the course in 10 days can be repeated.
Keep in mind that sometimes when receiving Cerucalumobserved weakness and drowsiness, but etiyavleniya pass quickly. Limit only: Reglan is not recommended for women with a tendency to high blood pressure.
Feeding lactating mother
Woman breastfeeding month old baby should produce about 600 grams of milk, three children - 700-750 g and 6-month-old - was 750-810
An important role is played by the diet nursingwomen. Good delivery and postpartum diet to include enough fluid, proper rest and frequent stimulation of breast feeding the child will help you to work out the necessary amount of milk.
As we have said, try every daydrinking milk, kefir, yogurt (less than 0.5 liters), there curd or cheese products (about 100 g), meat (200 g), vegetables (600-800 g), egg, butter (50 g), fruit (not less than 500 g), bread (400-500 g). It is recommended to eat vegetable oil (20-30 g).
Increase lactation contribute to honey, watermelon,mushroom soups, brewer's yeast (drink and paste), walnuts, fish dishes. Keep track of the volume of fluid intake - it should not be less than 2-2.5 liters per day with all the soups. Very useful for 10-15 minutes before feeding a glass of milk.
Pay particular attention to the content of iron intheir diets. At the nursing mother to the food need iron is 30 mg per day. Many researchers recommend that mothers of premature babies, twins, large and giant children during their breast-feeding take iron supplements (eg, gemostimulin).
In recent years, greatly increased amount ofnewborns with deficiency of the immune system. Therefore, avoid foods that can cause allergies in the child. This honey, fish, citrus fruits, strawberries, chocolate, organic coffee, pickles, strong meat broth, canned products for industrial preparation, excess eggs and sausages.
Strictly prohibits all alcoholic beverages, including beer.
If, despite the initial weight loss througha month after the birth you weigh more than you recommended (add with 0,5-1 kg to your breastfeeding), you can follow the diet for weight loss. The best way to lose 0.5-1 kg per week and avoid oily and junk food. Losing weight so fast, but not faster, you satisfy your nutritional needs and save your ability to produce enough milk.
The amount of food and the number of calories requiredyou daily, dependent on a number of factors. If you are very active, if you have a big baby or if you are breast-feeding more than one child, you need a daily intake of more calories to maintain your weight.
On the other hand, if you are less active andto lure a child by artificial mixtures, it is possible that you do not need the extra calories. During the period of lactation should continue to eat as well as during pregnancy and control your weight, guided by the amount of calories consumed by you. Regular exercise can also help control weight.
Breastfeeding and drugs
treated very cautiously to receive medicinesdrugs. The fact is that, together with you will take these medicines and the child - they quickly get into the breast milk. There is a group of drugs that are contraindicated for women during breastfeeding. It tetracyclines, streptomycin, sulfonamides, nilidiksin, iodine, reserpine, corticosteroids, cytostatics, ergotamine, metronidazole, chlorpropamide. If the mother is taking these drugs, the child may have hearing loss, stunted growth, hyperbilirubinemia, fatigue, skin rashes, digestive disorders, bloody diarrhea, vomiting. Of course, it also happens that for health reasons she had to be treated. But in this case it is necessary to consult with your doctor, he will recommend the most successful treatment option.
The mixed and artificial feeding
Often, unfortunately, despite the measuresmeasures to increase lactation, breast milk is not enough. Then it is necessary to transfer the child to mixed feeding - to complement the missing breast milk substitutes. At the same time the most important thing - to preserve the maximum possible amount of mother's milk.
Here are the correct steps: at each feeding apply baby to the breast (first one,
then to another), and only when both arecompletely drained, start supplementation. This tactic is absolutely essential when feeding children during the first months of life, when every drop of precious breast milk.
There are "tricks" that the child had not lostskill suckling. If the mixture is small, feed your baby from a spoon, otherwise it will get used to the easy flow of milk from the nipple while to get the food from the mother's breast, it is necessary to make an effort. But if a lot of supplementary feeding, it is best to put it into a special cup, and only as a last resort, use a bottle, pacifier by the elastic and making a few holes at the end of such small that the liquid flowed rare drops, and the kid worked hard, trying to get enough. Note also that even if the supplementary feeding many still give it only after the application of the baby to the breast. Give the mixture in the form of self-feeding, alternating with the breast, it is not recommended, as this lactation quickly extinguished.
But what if there is no milk at all?
If it is found in the first months of lifebaby, especially if he was born weak, premature or injured, try to feed him milk donor at least 2-4 weeks and only gradually go first to the mixed and then to artificial feeding.
The main thing - to choose a suitable mixture, given the age grudnichka, the level of physical development and health.
To produce artificial feedingbreast milk substitutes - adapted milk mixture, the content of the nutrients as close to the composition of human milk. Most often it is dry powders, which should be restored, throwing a certain amount of water. There are several types adapted formulas:
- "Initial" - for infant formula first 2-3 months of life, the most adapted to the peculiarities of the digestive crumbs;
- adapted formulas for children older than 3 months;
- mixtures which can be used throughout the first year of life.
What mix choose?
From the best of modern home: Dry adapted formulas "Nutrilak-1" - for babies up to 3 months of life and "Nutrilak-2" - for older. These mixtures enriched whey and social biologically active additives.
A wide range of imported and adapted milkmixtures for infants. Many have a number of advantages - contain digestible whey proteins, a wide range of vitamins, a number of biologically active substances that do not require boiling the reduction, provided with dosing spoons, have a longer shelf life. For children in the first months of life can be recommended "Similac 40/60", "Frisolac 1", "Enfamil 1", "Humana 1". During the first year of life, such mixtures can be used as "Similac with Iron", "Nutrilon" "Nan," "Heinz" and others.
Choosing a mixture of, pay attention to what age is indicated on the label and what is the chemical composition.
So, for kids from an early age bettertaking a mixture with a lower protein content (in the range 1.4-1.5 g per 100 g liquid product) and enriched with biologically active additives such as taurine, carnitine alpha. For weakened, anemic child choose a mixture with a high iron content (0.8-1.2 g per 100 g of liquid) for children with signs of rickets - fortified with vitamin D.
When restoring dry mixes is very importantcorrect dosing required amount of powder and water, avoiding the preparation as too concentrated or more dilute blend. Equally harmful and that, and another! In the first case, the baby can not cope with an excess of nutrients - it appears vomiting, upset his chair, decreased appetite. Using too diluted mixtures adversely affect the child's development.
Besides the dry adapted products, thereready to use mixture: they are released on dairy kitchens of health and baby food dairies shops. Ease obvious: time for their preparation is not consumed and the wrong dosage is excluded. However, using them for a mixed or artificial feeding child first months of life is possible only if you regularly get them. Occasional use of such mixtures is impractical - a small child difficult to adapt to the dramatic changes supply.
Especially useful for children dairyadapted formulas. The fact that they contain pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria or other lactic acid bacteria having the ability to displace harmful microorganisms from the intestine and thus exert a protective action, preventing the development of many intestinal disorders. Especially useful for such products in the hot season, impaired kids and those with unstable chair.
All that was said about the choice of the mixture is very important for the organization grudnichka feeding deprived of mother's milk. Equally important is the proper use of these mixtures.
Enter any, even the most perfect mixtureinfant nutrition is necessary with some caution, starting with a small number of paying attention to portability. It is particularly important to respect this principle, when it comes suddenly to translate baby first months of life to artificial feeding. What is important to know in this case?
- When poor tolerability of the mixture (the appearance of regurgitation, stool disorders, skin rash), contact the primary care pediatrician. It will always help if you need to adjust the power baby.
- In the first 1-2 days in each feeding, give your child no more than 2/3 of the age portion, while the total number of missing is filled with liquid food (boiled water, weak tea).
- If the baby tolerates mixture, its quantity can be quickly brought back to normal.
- With good endurance do not try to give other compounds, as each new product, a child is forced to adapt, and it is very difficult for kids.
- Correctly determine how much you need to mix. It depends on the age and body weight: daily amount of food for a baby up to 2 months -1/5 weight of his body, from 2 to 4 1/6, 4 to 6 months of -1/7.